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Table Of Contents

1. Introduction to Process Control
Objectives:
What is a Process?
What is Process Control?
Basics of Process Control
What is Open Loop Control?
What are the Modes of Closed Loop Control?
Manual Control
On-Off Control
PID Control
Time Proportion Control
What are the Basic Elements of Process Control?
The Process
Sensors
Final Control Elements
The Controller
Process Characteristics
Introduction: Process Order
First Order Processes
LLeessssoonn 11.. What is a First Order Process?
What is Process Dead Time?
Measuring Dead time
What is the Process Time Constant?
Measuring the Time Constant
Controllability of a Process
What is Process Gain?
Measuring Process Gain
Making Gains Unitless
Values for Process Gain
What is Process Action?
Process Action and Controller Action
PPrroocceessss OOrrddeerrss
Higher Order Processes
What are Higher Order Processes?
Over-damped Response
First Order Fit of Higher Order Over-Damped Processes
First Order Fit of Higher Order Under-Damped Response
Critically Damped Response
What is a Linear Process?
What is a Nonlinear Process?
Dealing with Nonlinearity
Disturbance Rejection
Set Point Response
Process Type
What are Self-Regulating Processes?
What are Integrating Processes?
Dead time, Time Constants and Gain in an Integrating Process
Dead Time in an Integrating Process
Time Constants in an Integrating Process
Gain in an Integrating Process
Introduction to Instrumentation
Instrumentation Basics
What are Sensors and Transducers?
Transducers
What are the Standard Instrumentation Signals
Pneumatic
Current Loop
Loop Scaling
Output Scaling
Input Scaling
0 - 10 V
What are Smart Transmitters?
Digital Communications
Configuration
Signal Conditioning
Self-Diagnosis
Digital Communications
Configuration
Signal Conditioning
Self-Diagnosis
What Instrument Properties Affect a Process?
Range and Span
Match Range to Expected Conditions
Measurement Resolution
Accuracy and Precision
% Error Over a Range
Absolute Over a Range
Accuracy vs. Precision
Instrumentation Dynamics
Instrument Gain
Instrument Time Constants
Instrument Dead Time
What is Input Aliasing?
Effects of Noise
Eliminating Noise
Low Pass Filters
Selecting a Filter by Cut-off Frequency
Selecting a Filter by Time Constant
Selecting a Filter by Alpha Value
Process Instrumentation
What is Temperature?
Units of Temperature
What Temperature Instruments Do We Use?
Thermocouples
Junctions
Junction Misconceptions
Lead Wires
Linearization
Gain
Thermocouple Types
Resistive Temperature Devices
The Importance of the Temperature Coefficient alpha
Lead Wire Resistance
2 Wire RTDs
3 Wire RTDs
Self Heating
Thermistors
Infrared
Emittance
Field of View
Spectral Response
What is Pressure?
Units of Pressure
Absolute, Gauge and Differential Pressure
What is Level?
Point and Continuous Level
Common Level Sensing Technologies
Non-Contact Level Measurement
Ultrasonic Measurement
Radar / Microwave
Nuclear Level Sensor
Contact Level Measurement
Pressure Measurement
RF Capacitance / Resistance
Guided Wave Radar
What is Flow?
Factors Affecting Flow Measurement
Viscosity
Temperature and Pressure Effects on Viscosity
Units of Viscosity
Viscosities and Densities of Common Household Fluids
Conversion Tables
Fluid Type
Newtonian Fluids
Non-Newtonian Fluids
Reynolds Number
Laminar Flow
Turbulent Flow
Transitional Flow
Flow Irregularities
Common Flow Instruments
Magnetic Flow Meters
Units of Mass Flow
Coriolis Flow Meters
Turndown
Installation and Calibration
Valves
What is a Control Valve?
Shut-Off Service
Divert Service
Throttling Service
Parts of a Control Valve
What is Cv?
What are Valve Characteristics?
Inherent Characteristics
Rangeability
Equal Percentage Valves
Linear Valves
Quick Opening Valves
Installed
What is Valve Deadband
Testing for Deadband
Method A
Method B
Effects of Deadband
What is Stiction?
Testing for Stiction
Effects of Stiction
What are the Types of Valves?
Linear Motion
Globe Valve
Gate Valve
Diaphragm Valve
Pinch Valve
Rotary Motion
Ball Valve
Butterfly Valve
Plug Valve
Pumps
What is a Centrifugal Pump?
What is Pump Head?
Why Do We Use Head and Not PSI?
What is a Pump Curve?
What is a System Curve?
What is the System Operating Point?
Throttling Valves
Variable Frequency Drives
Speed - Capacity Relationship
Speed - Head Relationship
Speed - Horsepower Relationship
What is a Positive Displacement Pump?
How Does a PD Pump Differ From a Centrifugal Pump?
Pump Head
Pump Curve
Changing the System Operating Point
The PID Controller
The Many Faces of PID
What are the PID Equations?
Series
Dependent
Independent
PID Control Modes
What are the Modes of Operation?
What is Proportional Control?
Bias
Controller Gain, Proportional Gain or Proportion Band
Controller Action
Process Nonlinearity
What is Integral Control?
Repeats, Integral or Reset?
Integral Windup
What is Derivative?
Derivative Filter
Derivative Kick
What is Loop Update Time?
What Combinations of Control Action Can I Use?
Proportional Only
Proportional + Derivative
Integral Only
Proportional + Integral
Full PID
Fundamentals of Loop Tuning
What is the Goal of Tuning?
Operate within safe constraints of the process
Maximize operating profit
Eliminate offset from Set Point
Be stable over the normal operating range
Operate Within Safe Constraints of the Process
Maximize Operating Profit
Eliminate offset from Set Point
Be stable over the normal operating range
Avoid excessive control action (not overstress the final control element)
The Approach
How Do You Tune by Trial and Error?
Trial and Error, Proportional First
Trial and Error, Integral First
Rules of Thumb
Good Practice and Troubleshooting
Common Control Loops
Flow Control
Level Control
Pressure Control
Temperature Control
Troubleshooting
Check each subsystem separately
Final Control Elements
Common Valve Problems
Common sensor Problems
Smart Transmitters
Temperature Sensors
Pressure Sensors
Flow Sensors
Common Controller Problems
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Instrumentation Textbook

Instrumentation Textbook

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Published by Kiran Chokshi

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Published by: Kiran Chokshi on May 20, 2014
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