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Diana Deutsch The Psychology of Music Pitch Processing

Diana Deutsch The Psychology of Music Pitch Processing

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Diana Deutsch The Psychology of Music Pitch Processing
Diana Deutsch The Psychology of Music Pitch Processing

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7
The Processing of PitchCombinations
Diana Deutsch
Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla,California
I. Introduction
In this chapter, we examine ways in which pitch combinations are processed by theperceptual system. We first inquire into the types of abstraction that give rise to theperception of local features, such as intervals, chords, and pitch classes. We alsoexplore low-level abstractions that result in the perception of global features, suchas contour. We next consider how combinations of features are further abstractedso as to give rise to perceptual equivalences and similarities. We discuss the rolesplayed by basic, and probably universal, organizational principles in the perceptionof musical patterns, and the contributions made by stored knowledge concerningthe statistical properties of music. We argue for the view that music is representedin the mind of the listener as coherent patterns that are linked together so as toform hierarchical structures.Other sections of the chapter are concerned with memory. We show how differ-ent aspects of musical tones are retained in parallel in separate memory systems,and that the output from these different systems is combined to determine memory judgments. We also consider the involvement of short-term memory for individualtones in our perception of tonal patterns. The final sections of the chapter concerna group of illusions that are produced by certain combinations of tones. These illu-sions have implications for individual differences in the perception of music, andfor relationships between music and speech.
II. Feature Abstraction
 A. Octave Equivalence
A strong perceptual similarity exists between tones that are related by octaves; thatis, whose fundamental frequencies stand in a ratio of 2:1. Octave equivalence isimplied in the music of many different cultures (cf. Nettl, 1956). In the Western
©
2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
 
musical scale, tones that stand in octave relation are given the same name, so that atone is specified first by its position within the octave and then by the octave inwhich it occurs (D
2
, F
x
3
, and so on). In one version of Indian musical notation, atone is represented by a letter to designate its position within the octave, togetherwith a dot or dots to designate its octave placement.Various observations related to octave equivalence have been reported. Forexample, listeners with absolute pitch may sometimes place a note in the wrongoctave, even though they name it correctly (Bachem, 1955; Lockhead & Byrd,1981; Miyazaki, 1989). Generalization of response to tones standing in octaverelation has been found in human adults (Humphreys, 1939) and infants(Demany & Armand, 1984), as well as in animals (Blackwell & Schlosberg, 1943). Further, interference and consolidation effects in memory for pitch exhibit octavegeneralization (Deutsch, 1973b; Deutsch & Lapidis, in preparation).Given that tones standing in octave relation are in a sense perceptually equivalent,it has been suggested that pitch should be treated as a bidimensional attribute; the firstdimension representing overall pitch level (
 pitch height 
) and the second dimensiondefining the position of the tone within the octave (
tone chroma
 or
 pitch class
B. Perceptual Equivalence of Intervals and Chords
When two tones are presented either simultaneously or in succession, there resultsthe perception of a musical interval, and intervals are perceived as the same in sizewhen the fundamental frequencies of their component tones stand in the same ratio.This principle forms a basis of the traditional musical scale. The smallest unit of this scale is the semitone, which corresponds to a frequency ratio of approximately1:1.06. Tone pairs that are separated by the same number of semitones are giventhe same name, such as major third, minor sixth, and so on.Chords consisting of three or more tones are also classified in part by the ratiosformed by their components. However, a simple listing of these ratios is not suffi-cient to define a chord. For instance, major and minor triads are perceptually quitedistinct, yet they are both composed of a major third (five semitones), a minor third(four semitones), and a perfect fifth (seven semitones). So it is of perceptual impor-tance that the minor third lies above the major third in the major triad, and below itin the minor triad; this needs to be taken into account in considering how chordsmight be abstracted by the nervous system.Given the principles of octave and interval equivalence, one might hypothesizethat the perceptual equivalence of intervals would persist if their component toneswere placed in different octaves. This assumption has frequently been made by con-temporary music theorists, who describe such intervals as in the same
 interval class
.Traditional music theory assumes that such equivalence holds for simultaneous inter-vals. Those whose components have reversed their positions along the height
250 Diana Deutsch
 
dimension are treated as harmonically equivalent (Piston, 1948/1987), and we easilyrecognize root progressions of chords in their different instantiations. Plomp,Wagenaar, and Mimpen (1973) and Deutsch and Roll (1974) have provided evidence for the perceptual similarity of harmonic intervals that are related by inversion. Forsuccessive intervals, however, it appears that interval class is not perceived directly,but rather through a process of hypothesis confirmation, in which the features thatare directly apprehended are pitch class and interval (Deutsch, 1972c).Deutsch (1969) proposed a neural network that would accomplish the abstrac-tion of low-level pitch relationships so as to produce basic equivalences found inmusic perception. The model is based on findings concerning the abstraction of low-level features in vision, such as orientation and angle size (Hubel & Wiesel,1962).The hypothesized neural network consists of two parallel channels, along eachof which information is abstracted in two stages. An outline of this model is shownin Figure 1. The first channel mediates the perceptual equivalence of intervals andchords under transposition. In the first stage of abstraction along this channel, first-order units that respond to tones of specific pitch project in groups of two or threeonto second-order units, which in consequence respond to specific intervals andchords, such as (C
4
, E
4
, G
4
) or (D
5
, G
5
). It is assumed that such linkages occuronly between units underlying pitches that are separated by an octave or less. Inthe second stage of abstraction along this channel, second-order units project ontothird-order units in such a way that second-order units activated by tones standingin the same relationship project onto the same unit. So, for example, all units acti-vated by an ascending interval of four semitones (a major third) project onto oneunit, all those activated by a descending interval of seven semitones (a perfect fifth)
PRIM ARY  ARR AYSPECIFIC INTERVALS  AND CHORDSPITCHCLASSESINVERTIBLECHORDSTRANSPOSABLEINTERVALS  AND CHORDSTRANSPOSITIONCHANNELOCTAVEEQUIVALENCECHANNEL
Figure 1
 Model for the abstraction of pitch relationships. Pitch information is abstractedalong two parallel channels; one mediating transposition and the other mediating octaveequivalence.Adapted from Deutsch (1969).
©
1969 by the American Psychological Association. Adaptedwith permission.
2517. The Processing of Pitch Combinations

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