V.Vijaya Kumari et al /International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering Vol.1(3), 2009, 192-195192
DETECTION OF OPTIC DISK IN RETINALIMAGES - A COMPARISON
Department of ECE, V.L.B. Janakiammal College of Engineering and TechnologyCoimbatore 641 042, India.email:firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Physics, Government College of TechnologyCoimbatore 641 013, India.Email:email@example.com
Abstract: In retinal image analysis, the detection of optic disk is of paramount importance. It facilitatesthe tracking of various anatomical features and alsoin the extraction of exudates, drusens etc., present inthe retina of human eye. The health of retinacrumbles with age in some people during the presenceof exudates causing Diabetic Retinopathy. Theexistence of exudates increases the risk for age relatedmacular Degeneration (AMRD) and it is the leadingcause for blindness in people above the age of 50.Aprompt diagnosis when the disease is at the earlystage can help to prevent irreversible damages to thediabetic eye. Screening to detect diabetic retinopathyhelps to prevent the visual loss. The optic disk detection is the rudimentary requirement for thescreening. In this paper few methods for optic disk detection were compared which uses both theproperties of optic disk and model based approaches.They are uniquely used to give accurate results in theretinal images.
Key words: Diabetic Retinopathy, optic disk,exudates, retina, macular degeneration.
INTRODUCTIONDiabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a result of longterm diabetes mellitus. It has been noted as asignificant growing public health problem. It is oneof the predominant causes of blindness. It causes pathological changes of the retina such asmicroaneurysms, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, venous bleeding and neovascularitiesas well as haemorrhages, exudates and retinaloedema. Regular screening of Diabetic Retinopathyis indispensable so that appropriate and timelytreatment can be given which thereby reduces theincidence of impaired vision and blindness from thiscondition. Current methods of detection andassessment of diabetic retinopathy are manual,expensive and require highly trained personnel toread large number of fundus images. The efficiencycan be improved by automating the initial task of analyzing the huge amount of retinal fundus images.The optic disk is the brightest part in fundusimages that can be seen as a pale, round or slightlyoval disk. It is the entrance region of blood vesselsand also acts as a landmark and reference for theother features in the fundus image. There are severalmethods for optic disk detection.In the PrincipalComponent analysis method (PCA), the minimumdistance between the original retinal image and its projection onto disk space is located as the center of Optic disk. This detection is accurate but moretime consuming. In the next method PCA and activeshape model  is used, where the shape of the ODis obtained by an active shape method. Here theaffine transformation is used to transform the shapefrom shape space to the image space. This algorithmtakes the advantage of top down processing thatincreases the robustness yet it is time consuming. Inlab color morphology,the location of optic disk was by both the automatic initialization of snakeand the application of morphology in color space.In Sobel edge detection and least squareregression, the detection is performed in the redcomponent in three steps-candidate areaidentification, sobel edge detection and estimationstep. Lalonde et.al used a Hausdorff-basedtemplate matching technique on edge map, guided by a pyramidal decomposition for large scaleobject tracking
.The cholesky algorithm was used but the snake had failed to locate the boundary inthe upper right quadrant. In this paper, the detectionof optic disk is done using combination of variousconcepts. Initially the candidate regions are selectedand by using different methods such as iteration, binary imaging, clustering and PCA, propagationthrough radii, the location of optic disk is detectedand compared.II.
This is a distance based method. Thecalculation of threshold is done by simple meanestimation method and multiplying the mean image by a scaling factor. A scaling factor of 0.85 isappropriate. The gray scale image is initiallyscanned pixel by pixel. For every pixel exceedingthe threshold a box of size (5 x 5) is constructed.This box is called a cluster. The x and y co-
ISSN : 0975-3397