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Project Report

Project Report

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Published by vkkhoti
minor project report
minor project report

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Published by: vkkhoti on Nov 15, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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is the transmission of signals bymodulationof electromagnetic waveswithfrequenciesbelow those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiationtravelsby means of oscillatingelectromagnetic fieldsthat pass through the air and thevacuumof space. Information is carried bysystematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiatedwaves, such asamplitude,frequency, or  phase. When radio waves pass an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current inthe conductor. This can bedetectedand transformed into sound or other signals that carry information.FM broadcast radiosends music and voice with higher fidelity than AMradio. Infrequency modulation, amplitude variation at themicrophone  causes the transmitter frequency to fluctuate. Because the audio signalmodulates the frequency and not the amplitude, an FM signal is notsubject to static and interference in the same way as AM signals. Due toits need for a wider bandwidth, FM is transmitted in the Very HighFrequency (VHF, 30 MHz to 300 MHz) radio spectrum. VHF radiowaves act more like light, traveling in straight lines; hence the receptionrange is generally limited to about 50-100 miles. During unusual upper atmospheric conditions, FM signals are occasionally reflected back towards the Earth by theionosphere, resulting inLong distance FM reception. FM receivers are subject to thecapture effect, which causes the radio to only receive the strongest signal when multiple signals appear onthe same frequency. FM receivers are relatively immune to lightning andspark interference.
Because this is a super regenerative design, component layout can bevery important. The tuning capacitor, C3, has three leads. Only the outer twoleads are used; the middle lead of C3 is not connected. Arrange L1 fairly closeto C3, but keep it away from where your hand will be. If your hand is too closeto L1 while you tune the radio, it will make tuning very difficult.L1 sets the frequency of the radio, acts as the antenna, and is the primaryadjustment for super-regeneration. Although it has many important jobs, it iseasy to construct. Get any cylindrical object that is just under 1/2 inch (13 mm)in diameter. I used a thick pencil from my son's grade school class, but a magicmarker or large drill bit work just fine. #20 bare solid wire works the best, butany wire that holds its shape will do. Wind 6 turns tightly, side-by-side, on thecylinder, then slip the wire off. Spread the windings apart from each other sothe whole coil is just under an inch (2.5 cm) long. Find the midpoint and solder a small wire for C2 there. Mount the ends of the wire on your circuit boardkeeping some clearance between the coil and the circuit board.C3 does not come with a knob and I have not found a source. A knob isimportant to keep your hand away from the capacitor and coil when you tune instations. The solution is to use a #4 nylon screw. Twist the nylon screw intothe threads of the C3 tuning handle. The #4 screw is the wrong thread pitch andwill jam (bind) in the threads. This is what you want to happen. Tighten thescrew just enough so it stays put as you tune the capacitor. The resultingarrangement works quite well.If the radio is wired correctly, there are three possible things you canhear when you turn it on: 1) a radio station, 2) a rushing noise, 3) a squeal, and4) nothing. If you got a radio station, you are in good shape. Use another FMradio to see where you are on the FM band. You can change the tuning rangeof C3 by squeezing L1 or change C1. If you hear a rushing noise, you will probably be able to tune in a station. Try the tuning control and see what youget. If you hear a squeal or hear nothing, then the circuit is oscillating too littleor too much. Try spreading or compressing L1. Double check your connections. If you don't make any progress, then you need to change R4.Replace R4 with a 20K or larger potentiometer (up to 50K). A trimmer  potentiometer is best. Adjust R4 until you can reliably tune in stations. Oncethe circuit is working, you can remove the potentiometer, measure its value,and replace it with a fixed resistor. Some people might want to build the setfrom the start with a trimmer potentiometer in place (e.g., Mouser 569-72PM-25K).
Many of the parts are fairly common and might already be in your junk  box. Only certain component values are critical. The RF choke should be inthe range of 20 to 30 uh, although values from15 to 40 uh might work. Thetuning capacitor value is not critical, but if you use values below 50 pf youshould reduce or remove C1. The circuit is designed for the high impedancetype earphone. Normal earphones can be used, but the battery drain is muchgreater and the circuit must be changed. To use normal earphones, change R3to 180 ohms.
Q1 can be replace with any high-frequency N-channel JFET transistor, but only the2N4416, 2N4416A, and J310 have been tested. A MPF102 probably will work. C2 isnot too critical; any value from 18 to 27 pf will work. C7 is fairly critical. You canuse a .005 or .0047 uf, but don't change it much more than that.
Super regenerative detectors
 super regenerative detector 
is an amazing circuit invented by Armstrongthat uses a super regenerative amplifier. Understanding a super regenerativeamplifier is a bit involved. There are two basic types, self-quenched andexternally-quenched. Don't worry about the terminology; I simply want tostate that this discussion is for the self-quenched type.Here is how you make a super regenerative circuit. Choose a regenerativeamplifier circuit configuration that requires more current during oscillationsthan when not oscillating. Adjust the regenerative amplifier to oscillate. Add asmall circuit that uses the current of the amplifier to charge a capacitor whileoscillations are taking place. Once the capacitor is charged, the voltage on thecapacitor is used to kill the oscillations of the circuit. (Technically, thecapacitor voltage shifts the operating point of the amplifier to reduce its gainand stop the oscillations.) When the oscillations stop, the capacitor discharges(through a resistor). Once the capacitor is discharged, the oscillations beginagain.A super regenerative amplifier thus oscillates at two frequency. It oscillates atthe tuned frequency of the amplifier and it has this secondary stop-start-stop-start oscillation. If the primary oscillation is at 100 MHz, the secondary should be at about 30 KHz for optimal performance.. (Please email me if you havedetailed technical information on this frequency relationship.) Note that the 30KHz is above audio frequencies, so the listener does not hear any noiseassociated with either oscillation. The super regenerative technique does notwork well at lower radio frequencies because the optimal frequency of thesecondary oscillation ends up in the audio frequency range.

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