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IP Subnetting made easy - Second Chapter

IP Subnetting made easy - Second Chapter

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Published by Hugh Tran
Hard to find how-to guide written by Chuck Semeria on IP Subnetting.
Hard to find how-to guide written by Chuck Semeria on IP Subnetting.

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Published by: Hugh Tran on Nov 15, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/10/2012

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host-numberbits
130.5.0.0/26 = 10000010.00000101.00000000.00000000
network-prefixextended-network-prefixsubnet-numberbits
Figure 16: 130.5.0.0/16 with a /26 Extended-Network Prefix
Route Aggregation
VLSM also allows the recursive division of an organization's address space so that it canbe reassembled and aggregated to reduce the amount of routing information at the toplevel. Conceptually, a network is first divided into subnets, some of the subnets arefurther divided into sub-subnets, and some of the sub-subnets are divided into sub
2
-subnets. This allows the detailed structure of routing information for one subnet groupto be hidden from routers in another subnet group.
11.0.0.0./811.1.0.0/1611.2.0.0/1611.3.0.0/1611.252.0.0/1611.253.0.0/1611.254.0.0/1611.1.1.0/2411.1.2.0/2411.1.253.0/2411.1.254.0/2411.253.32.0/1911.253.64.0/1911.253.160.0/1911.253.192.0/1911.1.253.32/2711.1.253.64/2711.1.253.160/2711.1.253.192/27
Figure 17: VLSM Permits the Recursive Division of a Network Prefix
In Figure 17, the 11.0.0.0/8 network is first configured with a /16 extended-network-prefix. The 11.1.0.0/16 subnet is then configured with a /24 extended-network-prefixand the 11.253.0.0/16 subnet is configured with a /19 extended-network-prefix. Notethat the recursive process does not require that the same extended-network-prefix beassigned at each level of the recursion. Also, the recursive sub-division of theorganization's address space can be carried out as far as the network administrator needsto take it.
 
11.0.0.0/8or 11/8
11.2.0.0/1611.3.0.0/1611.252.0.0/1611.254.0.0/16
11.1.0.0/16
11.1.1.0/2411.1.2.0/2411.1.252.0/2411.1.254.0/2411.1.253.32/2711.1.253.64/2711.1.253.160/2711.1.253.192/27
11.1.253.0/2411.253.0.0/16
11.253.32.0/1911.253.64.0/1911.253.160.0/1911.253.192.0/19
Internet
Router A Router BRouter C Router D11.1.253.96/2711.1.253.128/27
Figure 18: VLSM Permits Route Aggregation - Reducing Routing Table Size
Figure 18 illustrates how a planned and thoughtful allocation of VLSM can reduce thesize of an organization's routing tables. Notice how Router D is able to summarize thesix subnets behind it into a single advertisement (11.1.253.0/24) and how Router B isable to aggregate all of subnets behind it into a single advertisement. Likewise, Router Cis able to summarize the six subnets behind it into a single advertisement(11.253.0.0/16). Finally, since the subnet structure is not visible outside of theorganization, Router A injects a single route into the global Internet's routing table -11.0.0.0/8 (or 11/8).
VLSM Design Considerations
When developing a VLSM design, the network designer must recursively ask the sameset of questions as for a traditional subnet design. The same set of design decisionsmust be made at each level of the hierarchy:1)How many total subnets does this level need today?2)How many total subnets will this level need in the future?3)How many hosts are there on this level's largest subnet today?4)How many hosts will there be on this level's largest subnet be in the future?At each level, the design team must make sure that they have enough extra bits tosupport the required number of sub-entities in the next and further levels of recursion.
 
Assume that a network is spread out over a number of sites. For example, if anorganization has three campuses today it probably needs 3-bits of subnetting (2
3
= 8) toallow the addition of more campuses in the future. Now, within each campus, there islikely to be a secondary level of subnetting to identify each building. Finally, withineach building, a third level of subnetting might identify each of the individualworkgroups. Following this hierarchical model, the top level is determined by thenumber of campuses, the mid-level is based on the number of buildings at each site, andthe lowest level is determined by the "maximum number of subnets/maximum numberof users per subnet" in each building.The deployment of a hierarchical subnetting scheme requires careful planning. It isessential that the network designers recursively work their way down through theiraddressing plan until they get to the bottom level. At the bottom level, they must makesure that the leaf subnets are large enough to support the required number of hosts.When the addressing plan is deployed, the addresses from each site will be aggregableinto a single address block that keeps the backbone routing tables from becoming toolarge.
Requirements for the Deployment of VLSM
The successful deployment of VLSM has three prerequisites:-The routing protocols must carry extended-network-prefix information with eachroute advertisement.-All routers must implement a consistent forwarding algorithm based on the "longestmatch."-For route aggregation to occur, addresses must be assigned so that they havetopological significance.
Routing Protocols Must Carry Extended-Network-Prefix Lengths
Modern routing protocols, such as OSPF and I-IS-IS, enable the deployment of VLSMby providing the extended-network-prefix length or mask value along with each routeadvertisement. This permits each subnetwork to be advertised with its correspondingprefix length or mask. If the routing protocols did not carry prefix information, a routerwould have to either assume that the locally configured prefix length should be applied,or perform a look-up in a statically configured prefix table that contains all of therequired masking information. The first alternative cannot guarantee that the correctprefix is applied, and static tables do not scale since they are difficult to maintain andsubject to human error.The bottom line is that if you want to deploy VLSM in a complex topology, you mustselect OSPF or I-IS-IS as the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) rather than RIP-1! Itshould be mentioned that RIP-2, defined in RFC 1388, improves the RIP protocol byallowing it to carry extended-network-prefix information. Therefore, RIP-2 supports thedeployment of VLSM.

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