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Bryant R.L. an Introduction to Lie Groups and Symplectic Geometry s

Bryant R.L. an Introduction to Lie Groups and Symplectic Geometry s

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An Introduction to Lie Groupsand Symplectic Geometry
A series of nine lectures on Lie groups and symplecticgeometry delivered at the Regional Geometry Institute inPark City, Utah, 24 June–20 July 1991.byRobert L. BryantDuke UniversityDurham, NCbryant@math.duke.edu
This is an unofficial version of the notes and was last modifieon 20 September 1993. The .dvi file for this preprint will be availableby anonymous ftp from 
publications.math.duke.edu
in the directory 
bryant
until the manuscript is accepted for publication. You should get the ReadMe file first to see if the version there is more recent than thisone.Please send any comments, corrections or bug reports to the abovee-mail address.
 
Introduction
These are the lecture notes for a short course entitled “Introduction to Lie groups andsymplectic geometry” which I gave at the 1991 Regional Geometry Institute at Park City,Utah starting on 24 June and ending on 11 July.The course really was designed to be an introduction, aimed at an audience of stu-dents who were familiar with basic constructions in differential topology and rudimentarydifferential geometry, who wanted to get a feel for Lie groups and symplectic geometry.My purpose was not to provide an exhaustive treatment of either Lie groups, which wouldhave been impossible even if I had had an entire year, or of symplectic manifolds, whichhas lately undergone something of a revolution. Instead, I tried to provide an introductionto what I regard as the basic concepts of the two subjects, with an emphasis on exampleswhich drove the development of the theory.I deliberately tried to include a few topics which are not part of the mainstreamsubject, such as Lie’s reduction of order for differential equations and its relation withthe notion of a solvable group on the one hand and integration of ODE by quadrature onthe other. I also tried, in the later lectures to introduce the reader to some of the globalmethods which are now becoming so important in symplectic geometry. However, a fulltreatment of these topics in the space of nine lectures beginning at the elementary levelwas beyond my abilities.After the lectures were over, I contemplated reworking these notes into a comprehen-sive introduction to modern symplectic geometry and, after some soul-searching, finallydecided against this. Thus, I have contented myself with making only minor modificationsand corrections, with the hope that an interested person could read these notes in a fewweeks and get some sense of what the subject was about.An essential feature of the course was the exercise sets. Each set begins with elemen-tary material and works up to more involved and delicate problems. My object was toprovide a path to understanding of the material which could be entered at several differentlevels and so the exercises vary greatly in difficulty. Many of these exercise sets are obvi-ously too long for any person to do them during the three weeks the course, so I providedextensive hints to aid the student in completing the exercises after the course was over.I want to take this opportunity to thank the many people who made helpful sugges-tions for these notes both during and after the course. Particular thanks goes to KarenUhlenbeck and Dan Freed, who invited me to give an introductory set of lectures at theRGI, and to my course assistant, Tom Ivey, who provided invaluable help and criticism inthe early stages of the notes and tirelessly helped the students with the exercises. Whilethe faults of the presentation are entirely my own, without the help, encouragement, andproofreading contributed by these folks and others, neither these notes nor the coursewould never have come to pass.I.1 2
 
Background Material and Basic Terminology.
In these lectures, I assume thatthe reader is familiar with the basic notions of manifolds, vector fields, and differentialforms. All manifolds will be assumed to be both second countable and Hausdorff. Also,unless I say otherwise, I generally assume that all maps and manifolds are
.Since it came up several times in the course of the course of the lectures, it is probablyworth emphasizing the following point: A
submanifold 
of a smooth manifold
is, bydefinition, a pair (
S,
) where
is a smooth manifold and
:
is a one-to-oneimmersion. In particular,
need not be an embedding.The notation I use for smooth manifolds and mappings is fairly standard, but with afew slight variations:If 
:
is a smooth mapping, then
:
T
T
denotes the induced mappingon tangent bundles, with
(
x
) denoting its restriction to
x
. (However, I follow traditionwhen
=
R
and let
(
t
) stand for
(
t
)(
∂/∂t
) for all
t
R
. I trust that this abuse onotation will not cause confusion.)For any vector space
, I generally use
A
 p
(
) (instead of, say, Λ
 p
(
)) to denotethe space of alternating (or exterior) p-forms on
. For a smooth manifold
, I denotethe space of smooth, alternating
p
-forms on
by
A
 p
(
). The algebra of all (smooth)differential forms on
is denoted by
A
(
).I generally reserve the letter
d
for the exterior derivative
d
:
A
 p
(
)
A
 p
+1
(
).For any vector field
on
, I will denote
left-hook with 
(often called
interior product with 
) by the symbol
. This is the graded derivation of degree
1 of 
A
(
)which satisfies
(
d
) =
Xf 
for all smooth functions
on
. For example, the Cartanformula for the Lie derivative of differential forms is written in the form
L
X
φ
=
X
+
d
(
X φ
)
.
Jets.
Occasionally, it will be convenient to use the language of jets in describingcertain constructions. Jets providea coordinatefree wayto talk about the Taylor expansionof some mapping up to a specified order. No detailed knowledge about these objects willbe needed in these lectures, so the following comments should suffice:If 
and
g
are two smooth maps from a manifold
m
to a manifold
n
, we say that
and
g
agree to order 
k
at 
x
if, first,
(
x
) =
g
(
x
) =
y
and, second, when
u
:
R
m
and
v
:
R
n
are local coordinate systems centered on
x
and
y
respectively,the functions
=
v
u
1
and
G
=
v
g
u
1
have the same Taylor series at 0
R
m
upto and including order
k
. Using the Chain Rule, it is not hard to show that this conditionis independent of the choice of local coordinates
u
and
v
centered at
x
and
y
respectively.The notation
x,k
g
will mean that
and
g
agree to order
k
at
x
. This is easilyseen to define an equivalence relation. Denote the
x,k
-equivalence class of 
by
j
k
(
)(
x
),and call it the
k
-jet 
of 
at
x
.For example, knowing the 1-jet at
x
of a map
:
is equivalent to knowing both
(
x
) and the linear map
(
x
):
x
(
x
)
.I.2 3

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