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Quantum Computers

Quantum Computers

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Published by Akarsh Verma
A new concept.. just go through it..
A new concept.. just go through it..

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Published by: Akarsh Verma on Nov 16, 2009
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 International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 39, No. 9, 2000
Quantum Computers
Stanley Gudder
1
 Received January 21, 2000
This paper first considers sequential quantum machines (SQMs). The SQMs thatpossess an isometric transition operator and the SQMs that are factorizable orstrongly factorizable are characterized. Quantum Turing machines (QTMs) arestudied next and an alternative proof of the result that characterizes the unitaryevolution of a QTM is given. It is shown that any QTM can be represented intermsoftwoquantumprinterswhicharemuchsimplerthanaQTM.UnidirectionalQTMs are studied and it is shown that their corresponding quantum printers areclosely related to each other. A simple method for constructing unidirectionalQTMs is given. Finally, a preliminary development of generalized QTMs andquantum pushdown automata is presented.
1. INTRODUCTION
This article is a continuation of ref. 2, where basic properties of quantumautomata were discussed. Although the present article is essentially self-contained, we shall occasionally refer to ref. 2 for certain concepts andnotation. We now continue our exploration of the hierarchy of quantumcomputers by moving from quantum automata to quantum machines thathave a more complex structure.We begin in Section 2 with a review of some properties of isometricand unitary operators that will be needed in the sequel. We point out thatunitarity is not always necessary for the reversible action of a quantumcomputer and that an isometry is frequently sufficient. Section 3 considerssequential quantum machines (SQMs). We first characterize those SQMs thatpossess an isometric transition operator. We then characterize the SQMs thatare factorizable and strongly factorizable. Roughly speaking, a factorizableSQM is one that can be decomposed into an internal part and an output part.
1
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado80208; e-mail: sgudder@cs.du.edu
2151
0020-7748/00/0900-2151$18.00/0
2000 Plenum Publishing Corporation
 
2152 Gudder
Section 4 studies quantum Turing machines (QTMs). An alternativeproof of the result [1] that characterizes the unitary evolution of a QTM isgiven. We review the concept of a quantum printer [2] and show that anyQTM has a natural connection with two quantum printers. The advantage of this connection is that quantum printers are much simpler than QTMs. Inparticular, the transition operator of a quantum printer can be written as afinite product of quantum gates. We then characterize those pairs of quantumprinters that generate a QTM.Unidirectional QTMs are studied in Section 5. Their importance stemsfrom the fact that any QTM can be simulated by a unidirectional QTM withslowdown by a factor of at most five [1]. We show that two quantum printersthat generate a unidirectional QTM are closely related and this again givesa simplification. A simple method for constructing any unidirectional QTMis presented and examples are given.Finally, Section 6 discusses generalized QTMs and quantum pushdownautomata. Some of the results of Sections 4 and 5 are carried over to general-ized QTMs. A preliminary development of quantum pushdown automata isgiven and isometric transition operators are characterized. For comprehensivebibliographies on quantum computers, see refs. 1, 2, and 4.
2. ISOMETRIC AND UNITARY OPERATORS
This section reviews some properties of isometric and unitary operatorsthat will be needed in the sequel. In our work on quantum automata [2] allthe Hilbert spaces were finite dimensional, in which case there was nodifference between isometries and unitary operators. However, we must nowdeal with infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces and we have to distinguishbetween these two types of operators.If 
1
and
2
are complex Hilbert spaces, a norm-preserving lineartransformation
:
1
 H 
2
is called an
isometric transformation
. Thus,
:
 H 
1
 H 
2
satisfies
for all
1
. If 
1
2
, we call
an
isometry
on
. It is easy to show that
is an isometry if and only if 
*
1, where
* is the adjoint of 
and 1 is the identity operator on
.An isometry that also satisfies
UU 
*
1 is called a
unitary
operator. If dim
 H 
, then
*
1 implies that
UU 
*
1, so every isometry is unitary.However, if dim
, then there exist isometries that are not unitary. Forexample, suppose
is a separable infinite-dimensional Hilbert space withorthonormal basis
i
,
i
. Define
i
i
1
and extend
to
bylinearity and closure. Then
is an isometry, but
is not unitary because
1
is not in the range of 
. We denote the set of isometries on
by
(
 H 
)and the set of unitary operators on
by
(
 H 
). The following well-knownresult will be needed in the sequel [1, 2].
 
Quantum Computers 2153
Theorem 2.1.
Let
S
be an orthonormal basis for the Hilbert space
. (a)A bounded linear operator
:
 H 
is an isometry if and only if 
Us
,
Ut 
s
,
for every
s
,
S
. (b) A linear, operator
:
 H 
is unitary if andonly if 
is an isometry and
*
s
1 for every
s
S
.Notice that
(
 H 
) is closed under multiplication because
1
,
2
(
 H 
)implies that(
1
2
)*(
1
2
)
*
2
*
1
1
2
*
2
2
1Moreover, if 
(
 H 
), then
,
*
,

,
so
preserves transition amplitudes (and norms), which is all that is neededfor quantum probability theory [3]. Thus, to describe quantum computers,isometric evolutions are sufficient. Also, if 
(
 H 
), then
is injectivebecause
implies that
*
*
Hence,
gives a reversible action, which is a requirement of quantummechanics. We now show that any isometry can be extended to a unitaryoperator.
Theorem 2.2.
If 
(
 H 
), then the following statements hold:(a)
P
UU 
* is a projection operator and
UH 
is the closed subspace
PH 
of 
.(b)
:
UH 
is a bijection and
1
*.(c) If 
is separable, then there exists a Hilbert space
1
containing
such that
has a unitary extension to
1
.
Proof.
(a) Since
P
P
* and
P
2
UU 
*
UU 
*
UU 
*
PP
is a projection operator. To show that
UH 
PH 
, we have
UU 
*
PU 
Hence,
PH 
and
UH 
PH 
. Also,
P
UU 
*
(
*
)so that
P
UH 
and
PH 
UH 
.(b) Since
*
1 and it follows from (a) that
UU 
*
1
UH 
we havethat
1
*.(c) Let
0
be a separable, infinite-dimensional Hilbert space and let
 H 
1
0
. Now
is a closed subspace of 
1
and
is a bijective

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