automated tools used to design databases and database applications.
centralized storehouse of data definitions.
Database management system (DBMS
): commercial software used to define, create, maintain,and provide controlled access to the database and the repository.
organized collection of logically related data.
computer programs that are used to create and maintain the database.
languages, menus, and other facilities by which users interact with the varioussystem components.
persons who are responsible for the overall information resources of anorganization.
persons such as systems analysts and programmers who design newapplication programs.
persons who add, delete, and modify data in the database and who requestinformation from it.
Cost and risk of database approach
New, specialized personnel
Installation and management cost and complexity
Need for explicit backup and recovery
Evolution of database
– Traditional files.
– First generation; hierarchical and network databases.
– Second generation; relational databases.
– Third generation; object-oriented and object-relational databases.
– Facility of providing advanced things like sound clips and so on.
Disadvantages of File processing system (FPS)
Program data dependence
Duplication of data
Limited data sharing
Lengthy development time
Excessive cost maintenance
Potential benefits of the database approach are
Data descriptions are not stored in the program, stored in the centralized location.2.
Minimal data redundancy:
Unnecessary repetition of data when