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Definitions of Key Terms

Definitions of Key Terms

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Published by: manchana on Nov 16, 2009
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Definitions of key terms
 Database
: An organized collection of logically related dataEg:- Student information systemRoll noNameTotalPercentage(%)123ABC41269345CBA45672313PQR51287
 Data
:
Facts, text, graphics, images, sound, and video segments that have meaning in the user environment.
 Information
:
Data that have been processed in such a way that they can increase the knowledgeof the person who uses it.
 Metadata
:
Data that describes the properties or characteristics of other data.
 Database application
:
An application program (or set of related programs) that is used to perform a series of database activities (create, read, update, and delete) on behalf of databaseusers.
 Data warehouse
:
An integrated decision support database whose content is derived from thevarious operational databases.
Constraint:
A rule that cannot be violated by database users.
 Legacy data:
 
Data contained by a system used prior to the installation of a new system.
Differences of 
 Data dependence; data independence
:
With data dependence, data descriptions are includedwith the application programs that use the data, while with data independence the datadescriptions are separated from the application programs.
 Data warehouse; data mining 
:
A data warehouse is an integrated decision support database,while data mining (described in the chapter introduction) is the process of extracting usefulinformation from databases.
 Data; information
:
Data consist of facts, text, and other multimedia objects, while informationis data that have been processed in such a way that it can increase the knowledge of the personwho uses it.
 Repository; database
:
A repository is a centralized storehouse for all data definitions, datarelationships, and other system components, while a database is an organized collection of logically related data.
 Entity; enterprise data model 
:
An entity is an object or concept that is important to the business,while an enterprise data model is a graphical model that shows the high-level entities for theorganization and the relationship among those entities.
 
 Data warehouse; ERP system
:
Both use enterprise level data. Data warehouses store historicaldata at a chosen level of granularity or detail, and are used for data analysis purposes, to discover relationships and correlations about customers, products, and so forth that may be used instrategic decision making. ERP systems integrate operational data at the enterprise level,integrating all facets of the business, including marketing, production, sales, and so forth
Range of database application
 Personal computer databases
– No graphical representation only limited can be stored
Workgroup database
– Small group of people working for particular project, database is sharedamong 5-25 people and use 2-tier architecture. Eg: several scientists performing
 
research on anew drug.
 Department database
– 25- 100 people work in this type of database and use 3-tier architecture.Eg: database used by the human resources department of a large
 
hospital.
 Enterprise database
– More than 100 people work. Eg: the database supporting the SAPenterprise information system.
 Internet, intranet, extranet databases
– More than 1000 people work on web server Intranet- within the organization, extranet-giving access to the people who are not part of theorganization.
Components of database
 
DB System End
CASEtools
 
Userinterface
Application/program
RepositoryDatabase
 DBMS
 
CASE tools:
automated tools used to design databases and database applications.
 Repository:
centralized storehouse of data definitions.
 Database management system (DBMS 
): commercial software used to define, create, maintain,and provide controlled access to the database and the repository.
 Database:
organized collection of logically related data.
 Application programs:
computer programs that are used to create and maintain the database.
User interface:
languages, menus, and other facilities by which users interact with the varioussystem components.
 Data administrators:
persons who are responsible for the overall information resources of anorganization.
 System developers:
persons such as systems analysts and programmers who design newapplication programs.
 End users:
persons who add, delete, and modify data in the database and who requestinformation from it.
Cost and risk of database approach
 New, specialized personnel
Installation and management cost and complexity
Conversion costs
 Need for explicit backup and recovery
Organizational conflict
 Evolution of database
1960s
– Traditional files.
1970s
– First generation; hierarchical and network databases.
1980s
– Second generation; relational databases.
1990s
– Third generation; object-oriented and object-relational databases.
2000s
 – Facility of providing advanced things like sound clips and so on.
 Disadvantages of File processing system (FPS)
Program data dependence
Duplication of data
Limited data sharing
Lengthy development time
Excessive cost maintenance
 Potential benefits of the database approach are
1.
 Program-data independence:
Data descriptions are not stored in the program, stored in the centralized location.2.
 Minimal data redundancy:
Unnecessary repetition of data when

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