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Arithmetic: Properties of Integers and Numbers Numbers and Digits The

Arithmetic: Properties of Integers and Numbers Numbers and Digits The

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Arithmetic: Properties of Integers and NumbersNumbers and Digits
  The decimal system is a system of tens, which uses ten digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4,5, 6, 7, 8 and 9).Each digit has a place value, depending on its position in the number.For example, 5968 is a four-digit number, with 5 being the first or thousandsdigit, 9 being the second or hundreds digit, 6 being the third or tens digit,and 8 being the fourth (last) or units digit. So, 5968 = (5 × 1000) + (9 ×100) + (6 × 10) + (8 × 1).
Example
Find a three-digit number whose first digit is 1. The second digit is twice thelast, and the difference between the first two digits is 7.
Solution
 The first digit is given as 1.Since the difference between the first two digits is 7, the second digit mustbe 8.Since the second digit is twice the last, the last digit is 4. Thus, the required three-digit number is 184.
Integers, Natural Numbers and Whole Numbers
  The numbers {... −4, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ...} form the set of integers. The notation { } indicates 'set' or collection, and the three dots indicate thatthe list continues endlessly to infinity. The numbers {1, 2, 3, 4, ...} form the set of positive integers (also callednatural numbers or counting numbers). The numbers {−1, −2, −3, −4, ...} form the set of negative integers. The number 0 is an integer which is neither positive nor negative. It isusually not considered a counting number. The numbers {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ...} form the set of whole numbers.
Properties of the Integers 0 and 1
 If 0 is added to or subtracted from any number, the number remainsunchanged.Zero is therefore called the identity element for addition andsubtraction.If 0 is multiplied by any number, the product is 0.If 0 is divided by any number (other than 0), the quotient is 0.Division by 0 is not defined because it has no meaning.If any number is multiplied or divided by 1, the number remains unchanged.One is therefore called the identity element for multiplication and division.
Basic Operations
  The four basicoperations
 
are addition (+),subtraction(−), multiplicaton (×) and division (÷).All four operations are binary operations, i.e., operations are performed withtwo numbers at a time to get a unique result. The result of addition is called the sum, the result of subtraction is called thedifference, the result of multiplication is called the product, and the result of division is called the quotient.Subtraction is the inverse of addition, and division is the inverse of multiplication. The operations of addition, subtraction and multiplication on integers aresaid to be closed because the result of each operation is also an integer.For example, 5 + 8 = 13, 5 − 8 = −3, and 5 × 8 = 40. The operation of division on integers is not closed because the result is notnecessarily an integer.For example, 5 ÷ 8 = 5/8 = 0.625 (which is not an integer).
Quotients and Remainders
 Consider the following example. When 34 is divided by 6, the quotient is 5and the remainder is 4 because 34 = 6 × 5 + 4.In general, when integer
m
(dividend) is divided by a non-zero integer
n
(divisor), then there exist a unique integer
q
(quotient) and a unique integer
(remainder) such that
m
=
n
×
q
+
.Note that
m
is divisible by
n
if and only if the remainder
is zero, i.e.,
m
=
n
×
q
where
q
is an integer.For example, 36 is divisible by 6 because the remainder is 0 when 36 isdivided by 6.
Even and Odd Integers
 Even integers are those integers that are divisible by 2. The integers {... −4, −2, 0, 2, 4, ...} form the set of even integers.Odd integers are those integers that are not divisible by 2. The integers {... −5, −3, −1, 1, 3, 5, ...} form the set of odd integers.Note that the sum and difference of two even integers is even. The sum and difference of two odd integers is also even. The sum and difference of an odd integer and an even integer is odd. The product of two even integers is even. The product of two odd integers is odd. The product of an odd integer and an even integer is even.
Consecutive Integers
 Consecutive integers are two or more integers in sequence, each of which isone more than the integer that precedes it.Consecutive integers may be represented by
n
,
n
+ 1,
n
+ 2, ..., where
n
is
 
an integer.For example, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 are consecutive integers.Consecutive even integers may be represented by 2
n
, 2
n
+ 2, 2
n
+ 4, ...,where
n
is an integer.For example, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 are consecutive even integers.Consecutive odd integers may be represented by 2
n
+ 1, 2
n
+ 3, 2
n
+ 5, ...,where
n
is an integer.For example, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 are consecutive odd integers.
Example
 The sum of three consecutive integers is less than 87. What is the maximumpossible value of the smallest of the three integers?
Solution
 Let the consecutive integers be
n
,
n
+ 1, and
n
+ 2. Then, their sum is
n
+ (
n
+ 1) + (
n
+ 2) = 3
n
+ 3.So, 3
n
+ 3 < 87 ⇒ 3
n
< 84 ⇒
n
< 28. Thus, the maximum possible value of 
n
is 27.An alternative method to avoid the algebra and inequalities is given below.One-third of 87 is 29. So, let's guess the three consecutive integers to be 28,29, 30. Their sum is 87. The sum must be less than 87. Therefore, the integers must be 27, 28, 29.
Factors and Multiples
 If integer
n
divides integer
m
exactly with zero remainder, then
n
is a factor(divisor) of 
m
, and
m
is divisible by
n
.For example, 16 is divisible by 2 but not by 3. The factors of 16 are 1, 2, 4, 8,and 16.If 
n
is a factor of 
m
, then
m
is called a multiple of 
n
.Also, there exists another integer
such that
m
=
n
×
and thus
m
is also amultiple of 
.For example, 16 = 2 × 8 and so 16 is a multiple of 2 as well as 8. Note that8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, ... are multiples of 8; but 8, 24 and 40 are not multiplesof 16.
MUST-KNOW : Any integer is a multiple of each of its factors.
 
Prime Numbers and Composite Numbers
 Any positive integer can be expressed as the product of 1 and itself.For example, 17 = 1 × 17; so, 1 and 17 are factors (divisors) of 17.A prime number is a positive integer that has exactly two different positivefactors (1 and itself).

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