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Brain Computer Interface

Brain Computer Interface

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Published by Ajvad Rahman

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Published by: Ajvad Rahman on Nov 16, 2009
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10/21/2011

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Brain-Computer InterfaceSeminar’09
1.INTRODUCTION
What is a Brain-Computer Interface?
A brain-computer interface uses electrophysiological signals tocontrol remote devices. Most current BCIs are not invasive. They consistof electrodes applied to the scalp of an individual or worn in an electrodecap such as the one shown in 1-1 (Left). These electrodes pick up thebrain’s electrical activity (at the microvolt level) and carry it intoamplifiers such as the ones shown in 1-1 (Right). These amplifiers amplifythe signal approximately ten thousand times and then pass the signal viaan analog to digital converter to a computer for processing. The computerprocesses the EEG signal and uses it in order to accomplish tasks such ascommunication and environmental control. BCIs are slow in comparisonwith normal human actions, because of the complexity and noisiness of the signals used, as well as the time necessary to complete recognitionand signal processing. 
Figure 1: an example to show how the electrodes are placed 
Dept. of Computer Science & Engg:
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ME S C E Kuttipuram
 
Brain-Computer InterfaceSeminar’09
 The phrase brain-computer interface (BCI) when taken literally means tointerface an individual’s electrophysiological signals with a computer. Atrue BCI only uses signals from the brain and as such must treat eye andmuscle movements as artifacts or noise. On the other hand, a system thatuses eye, muscle, or other body potentials mixed with EEG signals, is abrain-body actuated system.
Figure 2 : Scheme of an EEG-based Brain Computer Interface with on-linefeedback. The EEG is recorded from the head surface, signal processingtechniques are used to extract features. These features are classified, the output is displayed on a computer screen. This feedback should help the subject tocontrol its EEG patterns.
 The BCI system uses oscillatory electroencephalogram (EEG)signals, recorded during specific mental activity, as input and provides a
Dept. of Computer Science & Engg:
2
ME S C E Kuttipuram
 
Brain-Computer InterfaceSeminar’09
control option by its output. The obtained output signals are presentlyevaluated for different purposes, such as cursor control, selection of letters or words, or control of prosthesis. People who are paralyzed orhave other severe movement disorders need alternative methods forcommunication and control. Currently available augmentativecommunication methods require some muscle control. Whether they useone muscle group to supply the function normally provided by another(e.g., use extraocular muscles to drive a speech synthesizer) .Thus, theymay not be useful for those who are totally paralyzed (e.g., byamyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or brainstem stroke) or have othersevere motor disabilities. These individuals need an alternativecommunication channel that does not depend on muscle control. Thecurrent and the most important application of a BCI is the restoration of communication channel for patients with locked-in-syndrome
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2. BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACE ARCHITECTURE
Dept. of Computer Science & Engg:
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ME S C E Kuttipuram

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