Jung is also an influential force in myth (archetypal) criticism. Psychological critics are generally concerned withhis concept of the process of
(the process of discovering what makes one different form everyoneelse). Jung labeled three parts of the self: the
, or the darker, unconscious self (usually the villain inliterature); the
, or a man's social personality (usually the hero); and the
, or a man's "soul image"(usually the heroine). A
occurs when someone fails to assimilate one of these unconscious componentsinto his conscious and
it on someone else. The persona must be flexible and be able to balance thecomponents of the psyche.
It can be a useful tool for understanding some works, such as Henry James The Turning of the Screw, in whichcharacters obviously have psychological issues. Like the biographical approach, knowing something about awriter's psychological make up can give us insight into his work.
Psychological criticism can turn a work into little more than a psychological case study, neglecting to view it as a piece of art. Critics sometimes attempt to diagnose long dead authors based on their works, which is perhaps notthe best evidence of their psychology. Critics tend to see sex in everything, exaggerating this aspect of literature.Finally, some works do not lend themselves readily to this approach.
An approach to literature that seeks to correct or supplement what may be regarded as a predominantly male-dominated critical perspective with a feminist consciousness. Feminist criticism places literature in a social context anduses a broad range of disciplines, including history, sociology, psychology, and linguistics, to provide a perspectivesensitive to feminist issues. Feminist theories also attempt to understand representation from a woman’s point of viewand to explain women’s writing strategies as specific to their social conditions.Feminist criticism is concerned with the impact of gender on writing and reading. It usually begins with acritique of patriarchal culture. It is concerned with the place of female writers in the cannon. Finally, it includes asearch for a feminine theory or approach to texts. Feminist criticism is political and often revisionist. Feministsoften argue that male fears are portrayed through female characters. They may argue that gender determineseverything, or just the opposite: that all gender differences are imposed by society, and gender determines nothing.
Women have been somewhat underrepresented in the traditional cannon, and a feminist approach to literatureredresses this problem.
Feminist turn literary criticism into a political battlefield and overlook the merits of works they consider "patriarchal." When arguing for a distinct feminine writing style, they tend to relegate women's literature to aghetto status; this in turn prevents female literature from being naturally included in the literary cannon. Thefeminist approach is often too theoretical.
An approach to literature that focuses on the ideological content of a work—its explicit and implicitassumptions and values about matters such as culture, race, class, and power. Marxist criticism, based largely on thewritings of Karl Marx, typically aims at not only revealing and clarifying ideological issues but also correcting socialinjustices. Some Marxist critics use literature to describe the competing socioeconomic interests that too often advancecapitalist interests such as money and power rather than socialist interests such as morality and justice. They argue thatliterature and literary criticism are essentially political because they either challenge or support economic oppression.Because of this strong emphasis on the political aspects of texts, Marxist criticism focuses more on the content andthemes of literature than on its form.
Origins of Marxist Approach:
The Marxist Approach is based on the theories of the philosopher Karl Marx. These theories were developedspecifically to analyze how society functions where there is constant change.
Philosophy was meant to be used as a tool to bring about change
The capitalist system caused the alienation of the workers, therefore causing them not to be able to live to thefullest
Capalist system would eventually cause the proletarians to rise up against the upper classes in a bloody revoltand replace the system with a communist one. Marx mainly focused on economics, particularly the materialforces of production, distribution, exchange, and consumption
History of the Marxist Approach:
century experiments in communal living
Publication of Marx’s works laid the groundwork for literary critics
Century saw interest in analyzing class conflict and the capitalist system
The Marxist Approach evolve and gained interest when people felt that the formalistic approach wasinadequate
The Marxist Approach focuses on
Concentrates most on the relationship between the test and reality