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teori

teori

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Published by KomdaGkjHarjosari
teori
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Published by: KomdaGkjHarjosari on May 25, 2014
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CHAPTER 1 1.
 
They have to be able to produce many kinds of functional text and monologue in the form of procedure, descriptive, recount, narrative, and report (Depdiknas, 2006: 278).
2.
 
According to Tomkins (1994:11), writing a descriptive paragraph is like painting a  picture with words.
 3.
 
According to Raimes (1983: 27), picture (such as: drawing, photographs, posters, slides, cartoon, magazines advertisements, diagrams, graphs, tables, charts, and maps) can be evaluated resources for teaching writing. Picture shares experience for the students in class, a common base that leads to a variety of language activities. It can help students improve their language use when writing (grammar and vocabulary).
 
4.
 
Raimes states that picture can be the basic for not just one task but many, such as sequence of sentences to the writing of original dialogues, letters, reports, or essays. 5.
 
to Sadiman (2009: 29-31), picture is (1) concrete, it points out the point of discussion more realistically than any temporary verbal media do. (2) Picture can reduce the border of time and space, (3) it can resolve our observation problem, (4) it can make clearer certain concept in any subject ant for any age, so that it can avoid and correct misunderstanding, (5) it is cheap and easy to use, with no need of using special tools. CHAPTER 2 1.
 
Rivers (1981: 296) says that writing depends on the mastery of listening comprehension, speaking and reading comprehension. 2.
 
Harmer (1983: 16) says
“ 
Writing is a productive skill
. By productive skill, he means that writing is a skill to produce a sequence of sentences, which are arranged in a  particular order and linked together in certain ways. 3.
 
Byrne (1997: 1) adds that the length of writing is varied. It can be a short writing containing two or three sentences, or more sentences. When they are put in order and are linked together, they form a coherent whole, called as
text 
. 4.
 
According to Cross (1955: 268), writing is closely related to reading. The students who read more will write more fluently. What they write is a natural follow up what have been read. 5.
 
However, writing skill is different from speaking. While all people who are normal  physically and mentally can naturally learn to speak, they have to be taught how to write (White in Nunan, 1989: 36).
 
6.
 
Byrney (1979: 1) defines writing as an activity of forming graphic symbols, that it, letters or combinations of letters which relate to the sounds we make when we speak. These symbols have to be arranged, according to certain conversation, to form words, and words have to be arranged to form sentences. 7.
 
Bell and Burnady (1984) in Nunan (1989: 36) point out that writing is an extremely complex cognitive activity in which the writer needs to demonstrate or control of a number of variables. It means that writing requires cognitive activity in which there are number of variable. 8.
 
Concerning with writing simple sentences into a paragraph, Burnady (1984) in Nunan (1989: 36) adds that:
“…at the sentences level, the variables include control of content,
format, sentences, structure, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and letter formation. Beyond the sentence, the write must be able to structure and integrate interrogative into
cohesive and paragraph text.”
9.
 
Guided writing is an instructional writing context chiefly teaching the writing process through modeling, support, and practice (Tyner, 2004). 10.
 
It offers greater opportunities for young writers to make valuable connections between text, sentence and word level decisions and help children shape and redraft texts with  particular criteria in mind (Holdich and Chung, 2003). 11.
 
Most importantly, with such a writing strategy, young students are guided into independent writing and help them discover their own abilities by providing opportunities for choice, peer response and further scaffolding (Oczkus, 2007). 12.
 
To make a good paragraph, a writer needs to complete several stages of writing. There are five stages of writing suggested by Peha (2002): 1) 13.
 
Genesee and Upshur (1966: 207) suggest five general categories, which are often used for the evaluation of students writing, namely: content, organization, language use or grammar, vocabulary, and mechanics. They also proposed numeral scores for each of the above categories as follow: 14.
 
The purpose of writing is what the writer intends to express on her composition. There are many purposes of writing. The followings are those stated by McMahan (1996: 8):
 
15.
 
Everett (1997: 1) says that Descriptive Writing is writing which represent or describe of  people, places, things, moments and theories with clear, powerful and detail images in the mind to help the reader create the mental picture of what is being written about. Accessed: 8 September 2012 at http://leostcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/descriptive.html.  16.
 
The E (English) Team (2006: 53) say that describing is like painting a picture with words so that our listener or reader has a picture in their mind about the particular things described. 17.
 
(Harmer, 2001: 38-39) 18.
 
Picture belongs to visual teaching aids (Vale and Feunteun, 106:1995). It is something drawn or painted: a shape or set of shapes and lines drawn, painted, or printed on paper, canvas, or some other flat surface, especially shapes that represent a recognizable form or object (Microsoft® Encarta® 2008 © 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved). 19.
 
Wright (1997: 10) says that picture can play a key role in motivating students, conceptualizing the language they are using, giving them a reference and helping create the discipline activity 20.
 
According to Wright (1989: 17), there are some roles of pictures in speaking and writing: 21.
 
According to Raimes (1983: 27), picture (such as: drawing, photographs, posters, slides, cartoon, magazines advertisements, diagrams, graphs, tables, charts, and maps) can be evaluated resources for teaching writing. Picture shares experience for the students in class, a common base that leads to a variety of language activities. 22.
 
Wright (1997: 2) says that pictures are not just an aspect of method but through their representation of places, objects, and people, they are essential part of the overall experiences teachers must help their students to cope with. 23.
 
According to Arif S. Sadiman (1992: 29), some weaknesses of pictures are: 24.
 
As posted by Sowath Bee at http://usingpictures.blogspot.com/, to choose the right  pictures for learning, teacher has to consider the followings: 25.
 
Bee (2009) suggests the following techniques for using pictures in the classroom. 26.
 
 Not only reading, pictures can also be used in teaching speaking and writing. To teach speaking, for example, teacher can arrange the students into pairs and give each pair two different pictures, and then ask them to find 10 differences in the pictures. If s/he wants to

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