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Published by Frank Gallagher
Human Inherent Cause Effect Reactor
Trade Effort Longevity Essentials Parity Acquiescence Transcendental Holistic Inherent Cooperative Interdependent Social Manifest
Human Inherent Cause Effect Reactor
Trade Effort Longevity Essentials Parity Acquiescence Transcendental Holistic Inherent Cooperative Interdependent Social Manifest

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Frank Gallagher on May 25, 2014
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved


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HIECER TELEPATHICISM Human Inherent Cause Effect Reactor Trade Effort Longevity Essentials Parity Acquiescence Transcendental Holistic Inherent Cooperative Interdependent Social Manifest HOME RACE Humanity One Mother Earth Reality Almighty Common Element De jure De facto OSCILLATION
Oppressive Satanic Capitalism Inequity Liquidity Levitation Antithesis Tranquility Interactive Omnipresent Neurons
Atom atom, smallest unit into which matter can be divided without the release of electrically charged particles. It also is the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristic properties of a chemical element. As such, the atom is the basic building block of chemistry. Ion An ion is an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of  protons, giving the atom a net positive or negative electrical charge. Element A fundamental, essential, or irreducible constituent of a composite entity. The basic assumptions or principles of a subject https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nLr9RRIrH4A SOOO Sanity One O One
 Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton  particle family,
 and are generally thought to be elementary particles  because they have no known components or substructure.
 The electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the  proton.
 Quantum mechanical  properties of the electron include an intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of a half- integer value in units of  
, which means that it is a fermion. Being fermions, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.
 Electrons also have properties of   both particles and waves, and so can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light. Experiments with electrons best demonstrate this duality because electrons have a tiny mass. Many  physical  phenomena involve electrons in an essential role, such as electricity, magnetism, and thermal conductivity, and they also participate in gravitational, electromagnetic and weak  interactions.
 An electron in space generates an electric field surrounding it. An electron moving relative to an observer generates a magnetic field. External magnetic fields deflect an electron. Electrons radiate or absorb energy in the form of photons when accelerated. Laboratory instruments are capable of containing and observing individual electrons as well as electron  plasma using electromagnetic fields, whereas dedicated telescopes can detect electron plasma in outer space. Electrons have many applications, including electronics, welding, cathode ray tubes, electron microscopes, radiation therapy, lasers, gaseous ionization detectors and  particle accelerators. 
Interactions involving electrons and other subatomic particles are of interest in fields such as chemistry and nuclear physics. The Coulomb force interaction between positive  protons inside atomic nuclei and negative electrons composes atoms. Ionization or changes in the proportions of particles changes the  binding energy  of the system. The exchange or sharing of the electrons between two or more atoms is the main cause of chemical bonding.
 British natural philosopher  Richard Laming first hypothesized the concept of an indivisible quantity of electric charge to explain the chemical properties of atoms in 1838;
 Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney named this charge 'electron' in 1891, and J. J. Thomson and his team of British  physicists identified it as a particle in 1897.
 Electrons can also participate in nuclear reactions, such as nucleosynthesis in stars, where they are known as  beta particles. Electrons may be created through  beta decay of  radioactive isotopes and in high-energy collisions, for instance when cosmic rays enter the atmosphere. The antiparticle of the electron is called the  positron; it is identical to the electron except that it carries electrical and other  charges of the opposite sign. When an electron collides with a positron, both  particles may be totally annihilated, producing gamma ray  photons.
 is a subatomic  particle with the symbol p or p
 and a positive electric charge of 1 elementary charge. One or more protons are present in the nucleus of each atom. Protons and neutrons are collectively referred to as "nucleons". The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is referred to as its atomic number . Since each element has a unique number of protons, each element has its own unique atomic number. The name
 was given to the hydrogen nucleus by Ernest Rutherford in 1920, because in  previous years he had discovered that the hydrogen nucleus (known to be the lightest nucleus) could be extracted from the nuclei of nitrogen by collision, and was thus a candidate to be a fundamental particle and  building block of nitrogen, and all other heavier atomic nuclei. In the modern Standard Model of particle physics, the proton is a hadron, and like the neutron, the other nucleon (particle present in atomic nuclei), is composed of three quarks. Prior to that model becoming a consensus in the physics community, the proton was considered a fundamental particle. In the modern view, a proton is composed of three valence quarks: two up quarks and one down quark . The rest masses of the quarks are thought to contribute only about 1% of the proton's mass. The remainder of the proton mass is due to the kinetic energy of the quarks and to the energy of the gluon fields that bind the quarks together. Because the proton is not a fundamental particle, it possesses a physical size
although this is not perfectly well-defined since the
 of a proton is somewhat fuzzy, due to being defined by the influence of forces that do not come to an abrupt end. The proton is about 1.6
1.7 fm in diameter .
 The free proton (a proton not bound to nucleons or electrons) is a stable particle that has not been observed to break down spontaneously to other particles. Free protons are found naturally in a number of situations in which energies or temperatures are high enough to separate them from electrons, for which they have some affinity. Free protons exist in  plasmas in which temperatures are too high to allow them to combine with electrons. Free protons of high energy and velocity make up 90% of  cosmic rays, which propagate in vacuum for interstellar distances. Free protons are emitted directly from atomic nuclei in some rare types of radioactive decay. Protons also result (along with electrons and antineutrinos) from the radioactive decay of free neutrons, which are unstable.
At sufficiently low temperatures, free protons will bind to electrons. However, the character of such bound protons does not change, and they remain protons. A fast proton moving through matter will slow by interactions with electrons and nuclei, until it is captured by the electron cloud of an atom. The result is a protonated atom, which is a chemical compound of hydrogen. In vacuum, when free electrons are present, a sufficiently slow proton may pick up a single free electron, becoming a neutral hydrogen atom, which is chemically a free radical. Such "free hydrogen atoms" tend to react chemically with many other types of atoms at sufficiently low energies. When free hydrogen atoms react with each other, they form neutral hydrogen molecules (H
), which are the most common molecular component of  molecular clouds in interstellar space. Such molecules of hydrogen on Earth may then serve (among many other uses) as a convenient source of protons for accelerators (as used in  proton therapy) and other  hadron   particle physics experiments that require protons to accelerate, with the most powerful and noted example being the Lare Hadron Collider . 

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