There are several upanishads ( over twohundreds!) and Sri Adi Sankara chose to writecommentaries (
) upon ten of them,known as
s. Sri Ramanuja andSri Madhva also wrote commentaries on thesame ten upanishads. Whereas Adi Sankarahighlighted the non-dual (
) philosophy propounded in them, Sri Ramanuja emphasised
(qualified non-dual) and SriMadhva, the
(dual) philosophies. Theten upanishads are given in the sloka :
ERx kenkq;p[Ãn mu<@ m;<@UKy twiÆ;rI . Aetreyc z;;NdoGy b[hd;r<ykdx; ..
Isa, kena, kathaa, praSna,muNda, maandukya, taittariya, aitarEya,chaandogya and brahadaaranyaka Upanishad
s.Adi Sankaras commentary is written in thesame order as above.
1. Isaavaasya (
ER x;v;Sy ER x;v;Sy
ER x;v;Sy ER x;v;Sy
) or Isa Upanishad
It is placed at the end of Sukla YajurVedas
portion. It begins with thewords
and hence the name. Theupanishad begins by saying that
pervades the whole cosmic makeup and oneshould attain the state of realization of this
by dedicating ones fruitof all
s to That Divinity alone !
ERx;v;SyimdsvR yiTkc jgTy; jgtß . tenTyKten &ujIq; m;gO/kSy iSv?dnmß ..
kenopin-;tß kenopin-;tß kenopin-;tß kenopin-;tß kenopin-;tß
This Upanishad starts with the word
and so the name. It is also called
since it appears in thetalavakaara
of Saama veda. This describes how the MotherHerself enlightened Indra with divine wisdomto understand the nature of
. Itis glorified with a saying search for whateveris lost in
! The Upanishad starts with aset of questions, Willed by whom does thedirected mind go towards its object? Beingdirected by whom does the vital force that precedes all, proceed (towards its duty)? Bywhom is this speech willed that people utter?Who is the effulgent being who directs the eyesand the ears? . The Upanishad proceeds todeclare that It (
) is known to him towhom It is unknown; he does not know towhom It is known. It is unknown to those whoknow well, and known to those who do notknow - an intense and minute analysis!
k#opin-;tß k#opin-;tß k#opin-;tß k#opin-;tß k#opin-;tß
This upanishad occurs in the kathakaSaakha of Krishana Yajur Veda. It containsthe dialog between the Lord of Death andNachiketas, a young boy who demanded toknow the answer for the question, whathappens to the soul after death? Although itbegins with a story, it expounds a great truththat the
is different from the body andall afflictions of the body (like anger, hatred,likes, passion, etc.) and so one should trainthe mind to view the body as an external objectto
4-6 Prasna (
p[ p[ p[ p[ p[Ã n n n n n
) Mundaka (
mu<@ mu<@ mu<@ mu<@ mu<@
) andMaandukya (
m;<@UKy m;<@UKy m;<@UKy m;<@UKy m;<@UKy
These three belong to Atharva Veda.Prasnopanishad deals with the analysis of sixquestions (
means question)and theyare: 1. How creation began ? 2. Devas are