coal.From time immemorial, man had begun to utilize the coal as fuel in the housingand also for production machinery fuel. In its development, currently coal hasbecome one of the largest raw materials for power generation.Coal can be synthesized into fuel gas and/or liquid through a gasification process,by heating it up together with water vapor and oxygen. The result is synthetic gas,which is a gas mixture of CO (carbon monoxide), hydrogen, and CH4 (methane).This synthetic gas can be used directly as fuel or further processed to get more"clean" gas. The process to get this gas can also be done without having to minethe coal first. Burning coal deposits that are still in the ground through a drill, andthen pump out the water vapor and oxygen into it. The resulting synthetic gas isthen expelled through a separate channelCoal liquefaction will produce liquid fuel where the composition is very similar tocrude oil. Some common methods used in this process include:
• Indirect Disbursement (indirect Liquefaction)
The first step is gasification, which produces CO, H, and CH4. Carbon monoxide(CO) and hydrogen (H) is extracted and reacted with catalysts include (asubstance that accelerates the reaction but he himself did not come to react). Thisreaction produces liquid fuels.
• Catalytic Disbursement (Catalytic Liquefaction)
Hydrogen gas is added into the solid coal in a pressurized container. The result isheated, also to include a catalyst. Once cooled liquid fuel formed.
• Solvent Extraction
Liquid solvent added to the solid coal. The solvent will lead HC decomposition,and then form a solution that finally will mix with hydrogen to produce liquid fuels.
Solid coal is heated together with hydrogen gas in high temperature. As a resultthe molecules of coal will be in the condition of the weakest bond and allowshydrogen joined to form a new molecule. Those new molecules are the liquid fuel.
b. Solid oil shale (oil shale)
Oil shale is a fine granule of the composition of sedimentary rock similar tolimestone. The difference lies in the content of solid organic materials that canreach 25%. Hydrocarbons in the oil shale can be synthesized by the heatingprocess called retorting. Fine powder of oil shale is heated up to 500
C in theretorting furnace. By heating the hydrocarbon-containing oil out of rock powder.