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The Universe

The Universe

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Published by MuSLiMana
The Universe is created, not eternal:
The Universe is created, not eternal:

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: MuSLiMana on Nov 17, 2009
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07/29/2010

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The Universe is created, not eternal:
Astronomical surveys show that the universe contains spots of extreme densityand temperature as the star's core, and others of low density and temperature asthe interstellar matter. This diversity is an evidence that the universe is noteternal but created. Had it been eternal it would have been equal all over interms of density and temperature due to thermal and pressure equilibrium.Another proof is the existence of radioactive materials such as radium anduranium, in spite of their limited half-life time. Also, the recession of galaxieswhich was discovered only in the first half of the twentieth century is another  proof. This latter evidence also underlines the existence of a beginning of theuniversal expansion. Scientists maintain that the universe emerged after a "big bang' , a formidable explosion- a hypothesis supported by the discoveries duringthe 1960s of the cosmic background radiation, the temperature of whichamounts to 3 kelvin degrees only.
 
Theories of the origin and evolution of the universe:
Modern books on cosmology abound with ideas, theories, proposals andresearches related to the efforts made to develop a theory explaining the originand the evolution of the great universe. The most important of these can besummed up in the following points:1) Two thousand years ago, Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) held that the earth was afixed center of the universe round which the moon, the sun, planets, and starsrevolve in circular orbits.2) In the second century A.D.,
 Ptolemy
- who lived in Egypt- introduced minor amendments to
 Aristotle
's model but still upheld the earth-centered view of theuniverse.3) This belief prevailed in the world until the emergence of Islam. A fewyears after the foundations of the Islam State were firmly established, theMuslims began to study several branches of knowledge and founded a greatcivilization world-wide. They readjusted the Ptolemic model and introduced anew model in which planets revolve round the sun. This model was borrowed bythe Polish scientist
Copernicus
when he moved to Italy (between 1496 and 1503A.D.) where he studied Islamic astronomy.4) In the first half of the twentieth century,
 Alexander Friedmann
applied thegeneral theory of relativity to the universe and created models and solutions thatall agree on the point that the cosmos is expanding at present.5) Hubble could support Friedmann's conclusions by his (
 Hubble
's) scientificdiscoveries. His measurements proved that distance between galaxies areincreasing steadily at velocities that are directly proportional to distance.6) Friedmann's models entail three possible kinds or forms of the universe:
 
a) The
"Closed Universe"
model: the potential energy is more thankinetic energy, which leads to the suspension of the present expansion of theuniverse, and afterwards to its contraction.b) The
"Open Universe"
model: the kinetic energy is more than the potential energy and the universe continues to expand.c) The
"Steady-State Universe"
model: the potential and kineticenergies are equal. Therefore, expansion of the universe decreases gradually, butnever reaches a zero point in infinity.7) The American physicist
George Gamow
(1868-1904), who comes from aRussian origin, suggested that there was a beginning of the universe between 10and 20 billion years ago in the form of a
'Big Bang'
in the 1960s, the radiationor the glow of the cosmos' beginning was discovered, as Gamow had predictedin the form of microwaves.8) In 1970s,
 Hawking 
and
 Penrose
proved that the universe must, penecessity, have a beginning, known in mathematics as the point of singularity,where density takes the value of infinity . Nevertheless, science has not beenable to reveal what the first moment of the life of the universe was like. The popular model now assumes that immediately after the emergence of theuniverse, it was a fireball of an extreme density and temperature. Then thefireball began to expand, while its temperature dropped rapidly forming what isknown as "radiation soup".9) About 100,000 years after the emergence of the universe, matter wasseparated from radiation. For the first time the universe appeared transparent.When the age of the universe reached about 300,000 years, the hydrogen andhelium atoms started to be formed.10) After about 500 million years, galaxies and their systems were formed ina way that has not be scientifically explained so far, in spite of the variety of the proposed models.
 
The popular model: an overview:
In the beginning - about 10-20 billion years ago – the universe was a handfulof high-density hot photons congested in a very small space. Then the handful burst forth and began to expand. Therefore, its density and temperature began todecrease.In the early fractions of the first moment, the universe was so hot that thetemperature reached millions of billions of degrees. It consisted of a mixture of matter and radiation where photons collided, forming elementary particles suchas protons and neutrons. These particles neutralized each other, transforminginto energy in about 3 minutes and 46 seconds the temperature dropped to about900 million degrees. So, protons and neutrons began to intermingle formingsimple stable atoms (such as heavy hydrogen). In the following hundreds of thousands of years, the matter of the universe became hot and opaque like the
 
star core. After 700,000 years the temperature dropped to 3000 degrees andelectrons and protons were fused, forming stable helium atoms. There were nolonger electrons where photons diffused. The universe became permeable to photons. Matter and energy were no longer interfused. Rather, they developedindependent of one another.About one billion years after the 'Big Bang', stars and galaxies began to beformed. Matter inside stars grew again and started to radiate due to theoccurrence of nuclear reactions which formed the heavier elements. These, inturn, were the source which developed later into the heavenly bodies we are nowable to see and observe.The theory of the evolving universe which conceives of the existence of a'Big Bang' rests on the observation of galactic recession and the backgroundradiation. By measuring the velocity of external galaxies it was found out thatthe recession velocity increases with longer distances. So, if speeds weremeasured backwards, i.e. in the reversed direction, galaxies should be heading toconverge in 10-20 billion, which is the approximate age of the universe.The background radiation is the photons that existed in the universe when itstemperature was about 3,000 degrees, i.e. it was radiated by a body whose heatwas 3,000 degrees. Since then, the universe has been receding, with the resultthat rays are shifted in the direction of the longer wave-lengths. Now waves arein the radio area. The peak of radiation was shifted suggesting that it came froma body measuring 3 degrees in temperature, rather than earlier measures (theradioactivity came from a body of 3000 degrees before the end of interfusion of matter and these photons 700 thousand years after the 'Big Bang'). 
 
The Creation of The Universe in The Qur'an:
With this scientific review of the theories and models of the universe's origin,and evolution, let us take a look at one of the ayat (verses) of the GloriousQur'an (as meaningfully translated):
" Do not the disbelievers see that the heaven and the earthwere joined together , before We clove them asunder? (30)" 
{Surah Al-Anbiya (The Prophets) XXI}.The ayah (verse) refutes the arguments of the disbelievers who search for theories and creeds to replace the notion of believing in one Omnipotent God(
Allah
) Who created everything and the universe itself.On the other hand, the Qur'anic ayah states that the heavens and earthwere joined together (the Qur'anic term is
"Ratq"
, in the sense of union).Taking into account the evolution of the universe since its birth, we will find thefirst event was the separation of matter and radiation when the universe wasabout 100 thousand years old. At that time, matter was formed of nuclei of hydrogen, helium, and some other elements as well as cluster floating in the

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