model: the potential energy is more thankinetic energy, which leads to the suspension of the present expansion of theuniverse, and afterwards to its contraction.b) The
model: the kinetic energy is more than the potential energy and the universe continues to expand.c) The
model: the potential and kineticenergies are equal. Therefore, expansion of the universe decreases gradually, butnever reaches a zero point in infinity.7) The American physicist
(1868-1904), who comes from aRussian origin, suggested that there was a beginning of the universe between 10and 20 billion years ago in the form of a
in the 1960s, the radiationor the glow of the cosmos' beginning was discovered, as Gamow had predictedin the form of microwaves.8) In 1970s,
proved that the universe must, per necessity, have a beginning, known in mathematics as the point of singularity,where density takes the value of infinity . Nevertheless, science has not beenable to reveal what the first moment of the life of the universe was like. The popular model now assumes that immediately after the emergence of theuniverse, it was a fireball of an extreme density and temperature. Then thefireball began to expand, while its temperature dropped rapidly forming what isknown as "radiation soup".9) About 100,000 years after the emergence of the universe, matter wasseparated from radiation. For the first time the universe appeared transparent.When the age of the universe reached about 300,000 years, the hydrogen andhelium atoms started to be formed.10) After about 500 million years, galaxies and their systems were formed ina way that has not be scientifically explained so far, in spite of the variety of the proposed models.
The popular model: an overview:
In the beginning - about 10-20 billion years ago – the universe was a handfulof high-density hot photons congested in a very small space. Then the handful burst forth and began to expand. Therefore, its density and temperature began todecrease.In the early fractions of the first moment, the universe was so hot that thetemperature reached millions of billions of degrees. It consisted of a mixture of matter and radiation where photons collided, forming elementary particles suchas protons and neutrons. These particles neutralized each other, transforminginto energy in about 3 minutes and 46 seconds the temperature dropped to about900 million degrees. So, protons and neutrons began to intermingle formingsimple stable atoms (such as heavy hydrogen). In the following hundreds of thousands of years, the matter of the universe became hot and opaque like the