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Published by inderkular

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Published by: inderkular on Nov 17, 2009
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S urveys
A.Some background informationThe basic component of surveys consists of QUESTIONS THAT PEOPLE ANSWER howeversampling and analysis are also fundamental parts of survey researchArguably the most popular data collective strategy in the social sciencesVictim Surveys and Offender surveys represent major data collection efforts in criminologyand criminal justice
BASIC MODEL: **test , describe these steps, provide answers
Answering survey questions
1.Understanding of questionsA.Interpretation and meaningExample : Are the 2010 Winter Olympics good for Vancouver?“good” in what sense?“Olympics” does this include the para-olympics?“Vancouver” Vancouver people? Greater Vancouver? British Columbia? Canada?Is the meaning/interpretation affected or dependent upon previous questions? (i.e. if allthe questions before this question dealt with the homelessness problem in Vancouverwould they affect the answer?A.Information ProcessingIs respondent being asked to think about actual experience or hypothetical situations?1.Retrieving/ constructing responsesMemoryMental capacityQualified to answer **Memory
If the time frame is from jan.1 –dec.31 (what crime have you been a victim of)
Forward telescoping
– talking about events that occurred before Jan. 1 acting like they didhappen after jan1Keep time period as small as possible for accuracy or relating it to other events (itoccurred before my birthday , after my anniversaryMental capacityWouldn’t ask a kindergartener about the economic status in Canada
Drug users who are high won’t haveQualified to answer**How old were you when you started to walk? How old were you when you didn’t needdiapers? Wouldn’t ask the person who experienced them1.Reporting answerSocial and conversational norms (e.g. social desirability- many will not disclose that theymight think that would make them look bad)Confidentially and anonymity (helps get a more accurate answer without worrying aboutsocial desirability, and insurance like a consent form)
Distinction based on the Mode of Surveying/how it is carried out.Self administered – given survey and done by yourself Interviews - surveyor asks you questions and they write down your answerHalf – interviewer asks questions but you write down answersSelf administered |-----------------------|-------------------------|InterviewsMailed Half - Face to Face–Emailed- TelephoneDrop of
Mailed surveysAt one time a common type of self-administered survey especially consumer/marketingresearchCan be effectively used with targeted groups (e.g. membership lists for a golf club)
Some basic considerations:
a.Cover letterDescribes the studyHas to get people interested in participating in the studyEnlists respondent’s cooperation/participationStresses the importance of the studyStresses the importance of the respondentInstructionsHow to complete questionnaire
How/where/when to return completed questionnairea.Typically LOW response ratesNon-respondents could be distinct in some wayFactors affecting participation/response rates:Whos doing itInducements to participate (awards, token of appreciation, being entered into draws)Characteristic of respondents (group member/non member, age, gender, ethnicity, socialclass)Mailing dateFollow-up procedures (reminder letter, additional letter and fresh questionnaire, telephonecall!!!) got to do a lot of work to get the most and best responses possibleConfidentiality/anonymity
1.Role of interview (can include)a.Locate and enlist cooperation of respondentsb.Conduct “good” interviewi.Motivate respondentii.Answer questions/clarify confusioniii.Using PROBES to elicit address informationiv.Accurately recording information (not easy)1.Training of interviewers (must include)a.Knowing key aspects of study (objectives, sponsors, sampling strategy etc.)b.Interviewing basics (how to ask questions and record answers)
Telephone Surveys
two reasons behind widespread use:Almost all households had at least ONE phoneUse of computers (CATI – computer assisted telephone interviews)a.Random digit diallingb.Standardized script (present interviewer with everything he or she will say andthey’ll read the script) allow you to build in an enormous amount of complexityin the script that not even the interviewer can screw up. For example, if you’reasking if someone has been a victim of a crime or not, depending on the answer,it’ll send the questions to a different part of the scriptc.Direct data entryNOTE: the methodology used by Statistics Canada to conduct victimization surveys 
Face to Face interview
A direct meeting between interviewer and intervieweeSome see this as the GOLD standard for survey research because of the high quality datathat can be generated

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