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Amber Trading - Notes (5) to Zeus by Arthur Bernard Cook (1925)

Amber Trading - Notes (5) to Zeus by Arthur Bernard Cook (1925)

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Published by jwr47
The routes thus traced by Herodotos and Pausanias correspond, at least in part, with the two main branches of the Amber Road mentioned above, viz. that which passed along the Elbe, the Moldau, the Danube, and the Adriatic to Central Greece, and that which linked the Baltic to the Black Sea by means of the Vistula and the Dniester. The position of the various stations on the Hyperborean routes and their relation to both branches of the Amber Road can be conveniently seen from the map here inserted (pi. xxvi).

It would appear that the five and a half centuries, which intervened between the time of Herodotos and the time of Pausanias, witnessed the transference of the first-fruits from the longer to the shorter land-route, a considerable saving of time being thereby effected. F. G. Welcker, as far back as 1860, suggested that the Hyperborean gifts actually consisted of amber; and his suggestion is decidedly attractive. If stones colored like water were appropriate to the sky-god, amber may well have been associated with, the sun-god.

Our enquiry, as a whole, leads up to the following conclusions. The cult of Apollon came into Greece along the older Amber Route from the land of the Hyperboreans, which is best located near the source of the Danube. The Agyigtis-pillars of Apollonia, Orikos, Olympe, Ambrakia mark out the 'Way' and point onwards to Delphoi, where the Hyperboreans Pagasos and Agyieus established the oracle. Apollonia in Illyria was left as a milestone on the road, if not also Apollonia in Akarnania and Apollonia in Aitolia.
The routes thus traced by Herodotos and Pausanias correspond, at least in part, with the two main branches of the Amber Road mentioned above, viz. that which passed along the Elbe, the Moldau, the Danube, and the Adriatic to Central Greece, and that which linked the Baltic to the Black Sea by means of the Vistula and the Dniester. The position of the various stations on the Hyperborean routes and their relation to both branches of the Amber Road can be conveniently seen from the map here inserted (pi. xxvi).

It would appear that the five and a half centuries, which intervened between the time of Herodotos and the time of Pausanias, witnessed the transference of the first-fruits from the longer to the shorter land-route, a considerable saving of time being thereby effected. F. G. Welcker, as far back as 1860, suggested that the Hyperborean gifts actually consisted of amber; and his suggestion is decidedly attractive. If stones colored like water were appropriate to the sky-god, amber may well have been associated with, the sun-god.

Our enquiry, as a whole, leads up to the following conclusions. The cult of Apollon came into Greece along the older Amber Route from the land of the Hyperboreans, which is best located near the source of the Danube. The Agyigtis-pillars of Apollonia, Orikos, Olympe, Ambrakia mark out the 'Way' and point onwards to Delphoi, where the Hyperboreans Pagasos and Agyieus established the oracle. Apollonia in Illyria was left as a milestone on the road, if not also Apollonia in Akarnania and Apollonia in Aitolia.

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Published by: jwr47 on May 27, 2014
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Amber Trading
Notes (5) to Zeus by Arthur Bernard Cook (1925)
1925)
 by Arthur Bernard Cook 
Amber / Eridanos
1
ucian in his little !ork
On Amber or Swans
 clai"s to ha#e #isited the
 Eridanos
 and lost his illusions$ %e sa! neither &o&lars nor a"ber' and the nati#es had ne#er heard of
 Phaethon
)he *eltoi' he says' regarded a"ber as the tears' not of the &o&lars' but of A&ollon$
2
Amber Road
3
A&ollon (said the *eltoi+' !hen banished by Zeus fro" hea#en' !as sent , not to Ad"etos king of )hessaly , but to the %y&erboreans$ -nce "ore !e are led to sus&ect that the %y&erborean land lay !ell to the north of .reece$ And the conte/t i"&lies that it !as located at so"e &oint on the A"ber Road$Already in neolithic ti"es one branch of this great trade0route ran direct fro" the Baltic to the Black Sea' tra#ersing the #alleys of the Vistula and the 1niester' !hile a second branch' &assing along the lbe' the 3oldau' the 1anube' ca"e do!n to the Adriatic' the Balkans' and .reece$ In the Bron4e Age and the arly Iron Age the lbe01anube0Adriatic route !as e/tensi#ely used by the a"ber0trade$ It "ay therefore be regarded as reasonable to &lace the %y&erboreans of the "yth  &retty "uch !here Pindar &laced the"' near 5the shady s&rings of Istros$5)he road to their far0distant country !as concei#ed so"eti"es as an earthly' so"eti"es as a hea#enly &ath$ )he for"er !as the great trade0route that skirted the eastern shore of the Adriatic$ )he latter !as its aerial counter&art' the 3ilky 6ay$ )he one !as the track by !hich a"ber reached the .reeks$ )he other !as the high!ay follo!ed by the birds$ And it is interesting to find that So&hokles connected a"ber !ith birds' !hen he described it as the tears shed by the "eleagrides or 5guinea0fo!l5 at the death of 3eleagros$
1925)
 by Arthur Bernard Cook 2Source: &age 88 in Zeus a Study in Ancient Religion Vol 2 Part I (
1925)
 by Arthur Bernard Cook ;Source: &age 8<= in Zeus a Study in Ancient Religion Vol 2 Part I (
1925)
 by Arthur Bernard Cook 
 
Two Amber-routes to Delos
Herodotos – The (west-side by the Elbe) “Adriatic” Route
-f the route by !hich the %y&erborean offerings ca"e to A&ollon at 1elos !e ha#e t!o #ery different records$ %erodotos a &ro&os of the %y&erboreoi !rites :5 By far the fullest account of the" is that gi#en by the 1elians' !ho declare that
sa"red things
 !ra&&ed in !heaten stra! are carried fro" the %y&erboreans to the Scythians> that fro" the Scythians they are recei#ed by a succession of neighbouring tribes' !ho  bring the" !est!ards as far as the
Adriati"
> that fro" this &oint they are for!arded south to the &eo&le of 1odona' !ho are the first of the %ellenes to recei#e the"> that fro" 1odona they co"e do!n to the 3alian gulf and cross o#er to uboia' !here they are sent fro" to!n to to!n till they reach *arystos> but that' after this' Andros is &assed  by' the Carystians taking the" direct to )enos' and the )enians to 1elos$5
Pausanias – The (east-side by the Vistula & niester )
Pausanias' ha#ing occasion to "ention Prasiai' a s"all to!nshi& on the east coast of Attike' obser#es :5In Prasiai 
8
there is a te"&le of A&ollon$ %ere the first0fruits of the %y&erboreans are said to co"e$ )he %y&erboreans , I a" told , hand the" o#er to the Ari"as&ians' and the Ari"as&ians to the Issedones> fro" these the Scythians con#ey the" to Sino&e
?
> thence they are borne by %ellenes to Prasiai> and it is the Athenians that bring the" to 1elos
=
$ )hese
 
#irst$#ruits
 , it is said , are hidden in !heaten stra!' and nobody kno!s !hat they are$ At Prasiai there is a to"b of rysichthon' !ho died on the #oyage as he !as returning fro" 1elos after the sacred e"bassy$5
!irst-"ruits
)he routes thus traced by %erodotos and Pausanias corres&ond' at least in &art' !ith the t!o "ain  branches of the A"ber Road "entioned abo#e' #i4$ that !hich &assed along the lbe' the 3oldau' the 1anube' and the Adriatic to Central .reece' and that !hich linked the Baltic to the Black Sea by "eans of the Vistula and the 1niester$ )he &osition of the #arious stations on the %y&erborean routes and their relation to both branches of the A"ber Road can be con#eniently seen fro" the "a& here inserted (&i$ //#i+$ It !ould a&&ear that the fi#e and a half centuries' !hich inter#ened bet!een the ti"e of %erodotos and the ti"e of Pausanias' !itnessed the transference of the
#irst$#ruits
 fro" the longer to the shorter land0route' a considerable sa#ing of ti"e being thereby effected$ @$ .$ 6elcker' as far back as 7=' suggested that the %y&erborean gifts actually consisted of a"ber> and his suggestion is decidedly attracti#e$ If stones colored like !ater !ere a&&ro&riate to the sky0god' a"ber "ay !ell ha#e been associated !ith' the sun0god$
8ocation  Porto Rafti  ?ong used as a %ittite &ort' !hich a&&ears in %ittite sources as Sinu!a'D;E the city &ro&er !as re0founded as a .reek  colony fro" the city of 3iletus in the 9th century BC$ Sino&e flourished as the Black Sea &ort of a cara#an  route that led fro" the u&&er u&hrates #alley$D?E  =By the ti"e of the -dyssey the island !as already fa"ous as the birth&lace of the t!in gods A&ollo and Arte"is$ 
 
6hether the neolithic
borings and cup-marks
 found on &ieces of a"ber in Schles!ig0%olstein' 1en"ark' and Prussia had any solar significance' is #ery doubtful$ For can !e lay stress on the %o"eric descri&tion of ury"achos5 necklace as 5strung !ith a"ber0beads' like the sun$5-ur enGuiry' as a !hole' leads u& to the follo!ing conclusions$ )he cult of A&ollon ca"e into .reece along the older A"ber Route fro" the land of the %y&erboreans' !hich is best located near the source of the 1anube$ )he Agyigtis0&illars of A&ollonia' -rikos' -ly"&e'
Ambrakia
!
 "ark out the 56ay5 and &oint on!ards to 1el&hoi' !here the %y&erboreans Pagasos and Agyieus established the oracle$
A%o&&onia
 in Illyria !as left as a "ilestone on the road' if not also
A%o&&onia
 in Akarnania and
A%o&&onia
 in Aitolia$
9)he #ery na"e A"bracia already indicates A"ber0trading

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