regulations limit histamine in fish at a level of 5 mg/100g (50 ppm) for assuring thesafe consumption of fish.This study was conducted to determine growth of histamine-producing bacteria(
) and histamine formation in yellowfin tuna(
) stored at 5, 15 and 25°C as well as effects of treatments of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water and in ice form on reducing histamine-producing bacteria on food contact surfaces (ceramic tile and stainless steel) and fish skin(Atlantic salmon and yellowfin tuna).
were the most prolifichistamine formers capable of producing >1,000 ppm of histamine in broth culture after 12 h at 25°C. Both species grew rapidly at elevated temperatures (15-25°C), but thegrowth was inhibited at 5°C. Histamine was produced by the bacteria in medium brothand tuna meat held at 15 and 25°C when bacterial populations increased to
CFU/ml (or CFU/g). However, storing yellowfin tuna inoculated with
at 5°C resulted in slight decreases of the bacteria over 14 days of storageand no histamine formation. Low-temperature (
5°C) storage was critical to preventhistamine formation in fish.
could survive well on foodcontact surfaces (glazed ceramic tile and stainless steel) and fish skin. However, atreatment of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (50 ppm chlorine) for 5 min wascapable of removing the bacteria completely from the surfaces (>1.7 to >5.4 logCFU/cm
reductions). Soaking salmon skin in EO water containing 100 ppm for 120