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Data Are Groups of Information That Represent the Qualitative Or

Data Are Groups of Information That Represent the Qualitative Or

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Published by: ajq007 on Nov 17, 2009
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are groups of information that represent the qualitative or quantitativeattributes of a variable or set of variables
(1) In computing, data isinformationthat has been translated into a form that is more convenientto move or process. Relative to today'scomputer s and transmission media, data is informationconverted into binary digital form. 2) In computer component interconnection and network communication, data is oftendistinguished from "control information," "control bits," and similar terms to identify the maincontent of a transmission unit.3) In telecommunications, data sometimes means digital-encoded information to distinguish it fromanalog-encoded information such as conventional telephone voice calls. In general,"analog" or voice transmission requires a dedicated continual connection for the duration of arelated series of transmissions. Data transmission can often be sent with intermittent connectionsin packets that arrive in piecemeal fashion.4) Generally and in science, data is a gathered body of facts.Some authorities and publishers, cognizant of the word's Latin origin and as the plural form of "datum," use plural verb forms with "data". Others take the view that since "datum" is rarelyused, it is more natural to treat "data" as a singular form.
collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn; "statistical data"
DATABASEA database is a collection of  information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated. In one view, databases can be classified according to types of content: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and images.Computer databases typically contain aggregations of data records or files, such as salestransactions, product catalogs and inventories, and customer profiles.The definition of a database is a structured collection of records or data that is stored in acomputer system. In order for a database to be truly functional, it must not only store largeamounts of records well, but be accessed easily. In addition, new information and changesshould also be fairly easy to input. In order to have a highly efficient database system, you needto incorporate a program that manages the queries and information stored on the system. This isusually referred to as DBMS or a Database Management System. Besides these features, alldatabases that are created should be built with high data integrity and the ability to recover dataif hardware fails.
A database management system (DBMS) is softwarethat organizes the storage of data. It controls the creation, maintenance, and use of the database storage stuctures of an organizationand its end users. It allows organizations to place control of organizationwide databasedevelopment in the hands of Database Administrators (DBAs) and other specialist. In largesystems, a DBMS allows users and other software to store and retrieve data in a structured way.Database management systems are categorized according to the database modelthat they support, such as the network, relational or object model. The model tends to determine the querylanguagesthat are available to access the database. One commonly used query language for therelational database is SQL,although SQL syntax and function can vary from one DBMS to another. A common query language for the object database is OQL,although it is not implemented by all vendors of object databases. A great deal of the internal engineering of a
DBMS is independent of the data model, and is concerned with managing factors such as performance, concurrency, integrity, and recovery from hardware failures. In these areas thereare large differences between products.A relational database management system (RDBMS) implements the features of the relationalmodel. In this context,Date's "Information Principle" states: "the entire information content of  the database is represented in one and only one way. Namely as explicit values in column positions (attributes) and rows inrelations (tuples
). Therefore, there are no explicit pointers between related tables." This contrasts with the object database management system (ODBMS)which does store explicit pointers between related types.
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In general, raw datathat (1) has been verified to beaccurateand timely, (2) is specific andorganized  for a purpose, (3) is presented within a contextthat gives it meaning and relevance, and which (4) leadsto increase in understanding and decrease inuncertainty. Thevalue of information lies solely in itsability to affect abehavior,decision, or outcome. A piece of information is considered valueless if, after receiving it, things remain unchanged. For thetechnicalmeaning of information see information theory.
Metadata describes other data. It provides information about a certain item's content. For example, an image may include metadata that describes how large the picture is, the color depth,the image resolution, when the image was created, and other data. A text document's metadatamay contain information about how long the document is, who the author is, when the documentwas written, and a short summary of the document.Web pages often include metadata in the form of  meta tags.Description and keywords meta tags are commonly used to describe the Web page's content. Most search engines use this data whenadding pages to their search index.
File processing system store data in separate computer files
Disadvantages of File Processing Systems include:1.Program-Data Dependence. File descriptions are stored within each applicationprogram that accesses a given file.2.Duplication of Data. Applications are developed independently in file processingsystems leading to unplanned duplicate files. Duplication is wasteful as it requiresadditional storage space and changes in one file must be made manually in all files.This also results in loss of data integrity. It is also possible that the same data itemmay have different names in different files, or the same name may be used fordifferent data items in different files.

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