). Therefore, there are no explicit pointers between related tables." This contrasts with the object database management system (ODBMS)which does store explicit pointers between related types.
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Metadata describes other data. It provides information about a certain item's content. For example, an image may include metadata that describes how large the picture is, the color depth,the image resolution, when the image was created, and other data. A text document's metadatamay contain information about how long the document is, who the author is, when the documentwas written, and a short summary of the document.Web pages often include metadata in the form of meta tags.Description and keywords meta tags
are commonly used to describe the Web page's content. Most search engines use this data whenadding pages to their search index.
File processing system store data in separate computer files
Disadvantages of File Processing Systems include:1.Program-Data Dependence. File descriptions are stored within each applicationprogram that accesses a given file.2.Duplication of Data. Applications are developed independently in file processingsystems leading to unplanned duplicate files. Duplication is wasteful as it requiresadditional storage space and changes in one file must be made manually in all files.This also results in loss of data integrity. It is also possible that the same data itemmay have different names in different files, or the same name may be used fordifferent data items in different files.