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Servo Control Systems - dc

Servo Control Systems - dc

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Published by M V R K Prasad
Servo Control Systems
Servo Control Systems

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Published by: M V R K Prasad on Nov 17, 2009
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01/03/2013

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SERVO CONTROL SYSTEMS
DC Servomechanisms
ABSTRACT:

This paper is to give an insight into the important principles and process in
control in control systems. There are a number of generic systems and methods, which are
encountered in all areas of industry and technology. This paper aims to explain those
important systems and methods in straightforward terms.

This paper is about universally used \u201c WORK HORSE \u201cof electro-mechanical
systems \u2013 DC servo control systems or servomechanisms. In this first we give, what\u2019s a
servo control system and what it\u2019s important in our daily works with some small examples
Then what is a mathematical modeling of simple servo systems {DC servo system that is
starting point for understanding all other servo systems.} next, we will give a list of servo
system control techniques with some examples.

WHAT IS A SERVO CONTROL SYSTEMS:

A servo control system is one of the most important and widely used forms of
control systems. Any machine or piece of equipment that has rotating parts will contain one
(or) more servo control systems.

The job of control system may include
\u2022
Maintaining the speed of a motor with in certain limits, even when the load on the
output of the motor might vary. This is called \u201cRegulation\u201d.
\u2022

Vary the speed of a motor and loading according to an externally set programmed
Values. This is called set point (or reference) tracking.
Our daily lives depend upon servo controllers. Anyway that there is an electric motor
there will be a servo control system to control it. Servo control is very important. The
economy of the world depends upon servo control. Manufacturing industry would cease
with out servo systems because factory production lines could not be controlled,
transportation would halt because electric traction units would fail, computers would
cease because disk drives would not work properly and communication network would
fail because network servers use hard disk. Similarly music and games systems will not
work without servo control.

MODELLING A SIMPLE SERVO SYSTEM:

Before we can control a system we must understand in mathematical terms how the
system behaves without control. This is system modeling and it is fundamental part of our
work in control system analysis. This paper is about simplest form of servo \u2013 the direct
current (DC) position control servomechanism. It is important because although it is
simplest form of servomechanism, it is used as the starting point for understanding all
other servo systems.

The basic form of DC servo system is made of an electric motor with an output shaft
that has an inertial loadj on it, and friction in bearings of motor and load (b). There will
an electric drive circuit where an input voltage u (t) is transformed by the motor into a
torqueT(t) in the motor output shaft. Using system-modeling ideas for mechanical
systems a torque balance can be written between input torque from the motor and the
torque required to accelerate the load and overcome friction.
This is shown in the equation,

J\u03b8 + b\u03b8 = T(t);
Where\u03b8 is the angular position of the servo output shaft. The control objective is to
control the shaft position\u03b8 or the shaft velocity\u03b8 to be some desired value.

The input voltage u (t) is related to the torque T (t) by a gainK and the inertia divided by
the friction coefficient is referred to as the system time constant\u03c4, where\u03c4 =J/b .so the
system model becomes:

\u03c4 \u03b8 + \u03b8 = Ku (t);

In a practical system there will be additional components of the model, which are
important. Many of these are to do with the non-linearity in the drive amplifiers and
friction in the mechanical components. The most important non-linearity are the saturation
voltage of the motor drive amplifier, the dead band in the amplifier, the so called Coulomb
friction in the rotating mechanical components and hysterysis in any gearboxes that might
be between the motor and the load. A good control system must include features to deal
with these nonlinear features.

In this paper we will concentrate on the linear parts of the servo systems and only show
some hints of nonlinear issues. The linear part of the servo system model can be put in the
transfer function form:

K
y(s) =
u (s);
s(\u03c4s+1)

Where y (s) is the output shaft position and u (s) is the motor input.K is the system gain
and\u03c4 ( tau ) is the time constant.
An important job for the control systems analysis is to know how to measure the values of
the gainK and the time constant\u03c4 .So the transfer function model can be decomposed into
the transfer function form the motor input to the motor speed v (s), and the transfer
function from the motor speed to the output shaft position.

1
v (s)=
u (s);
(\u03c4s+1)K
y(s) =
v (s);
s

Many control systems design tools use a state space representation of the system model. In servo systems the states are the velocity and the position of the servo system output shaft. Rearranging the system transfer model gives the state space form.

x1
0 K
x1
0
=
+
u
x2
0 -\u03c4-1
x2
\u03c4-1
y
1
0
x1
=
u
0
1
x2
Where :x1 =\u03b8 =y = the angular position output and
x2 =\u03b8 = y the angular velocity
This is also written as :
x1
x1
=
A
+ bu
x2
x2
Where:
0
K
0
1
0
A =
b=
C =
0
-\u03c4-1
-\u03c4-1
1
0

Also note that the servo system measured variables in the state model are the position of the shafty (using a position encoder or potentiometer) and the velocityv (using a speed encoder).

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