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MB0024 - Completed

MB0024 - Completed

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10/20/2012

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NameG M Firoz KhanRoll No.520931217ProgramMBASubjectStatistics for Management[Set 2]CodeMB 0024LearningCentreSystems Domain –Indira Nagar,Bangalore [2779]
Set 2MB0024

1.What do you mean by sample survey? What are thedifferent sampling methods? Briefly describe them.
Sample
is a finite subset of a population drawn from it to estimate thecharacteristics of the population. Sampling is a tool which enables us todraw conclusions about the characteristics of the population.
Survey sampling
describes the process of selecting a sample of elementsfrom a target population in order to conduct a survey.A survey may refer to many different types or techniques of observation,but in the context of survey sampling it most often refers to a questionnaireused to measure the characteristics and/or attitudes of people. The purposeof sampling is to reduce the cost and/or the amount of work that it wouldtake to survey the entire target population. A survey that measures theentire target population is called a census.
Sample survey
can also be described as the technique used to study abouta population with the help of a sample. Population is the totality all objectsabout which the study is proposed. Sample is only a portion of thispopulation, which is selected using certain statistical principles calledsampling designs (this is for guaranteeing that a representative sample isobtained for the study). Once the sample decided information will becollected from this sample, which process is called sample survey.It is incumbent on the researcher to clearly define the target population.There are no strict rules to follow, and the researcher must rely on logic and judgment. The population is defined in keeping with the objectives of thestudy.Sometimes, the entire population will be sufficiently small, and theresearcher can include the entire population in the study. This type of research is called a census study because data is gathered on every memberof the population.Usually, the population is too large for the researcher to attempt to surveyall of its members. A small, but carefully chosen sample can be used torepresent the population. The sample reflects the characteristics of thepopulation from which it is drawn.Sampling methods are classified as either
probability
or
non-probability
.In probability samples, each member of the population has a known non-zero probability of being selected.
Probability methods include randomsampling,

systematic sampling, and stratified sampling
. In non-probability sampling, members are selected from the population in somenon-random manner. These include
convenience sampling, judgmentsampling, quota sampling, and

snowball sampling.
The advantage of probability sampling is that sampling error can be calculated. Sampling erroris the degree to which a sample might differ from the population. Wheninferring to the population, results are reported plus or minus the sampling
Set 2MB0024

error. In non-probability sampling, the degree to which the sample differsfrom the population remains unknown.
Probability Sampling Methods
1.
Random sampling
is the purest form of probability sampling. Eachmember of the population has an equal and known chance of beingselected. When there are very large populations, it is often difficult orimpossible to identify every member of the population, so the pool of available subjects becomes biased.
2.
Systematic sampling
is often used instead of random sampling. It isalso called an N
th
name selection technique. After the required samplesize has been calculated, every N
th
record is selected from a list of population members. As long as the list does not contain any hiddenorder, this sampling method is as good as the random samplingmethod. Its only advantage over the random sampling technique issimplicity. Systematic sampling is frequently used to select a specifiednumber of records from a computer file.
3.
Stratified sampling
is commonly used probability method that issuperior to random sampling because it reduces sampling error. Astratum is a subset of the population that share at least one commoncharacteristic. Examples of stratums might be males and females, ormanagers and non-managers. The researcher first identifies therelevant stratums and their actual representation in the population.Random sampling is then used to select a
sufficient
number of subjectsfrom each stratum. "
Sufficient
" refers to a sample size large enough forus to be reasonably confident that the stratum represents thepopulation.Stratified sampling is often used when one or more of the stratums in thepopulation have a low incidence relative to the other stratums.
Non Probability Methods
1.
Convenience sampling
is used in exploratory research where theresearcher is interested in getting an inexpensive approximation of thetruth. As the name implies, the sample is selected because they areconvenient. This non-probability method is often used duringpreliminary research efforts to get a gross estimate of the results,without incurring the cost or time required to select a random sample.
2.
Judgment sampling
is a common non-probability method. Theresearcher selects the sample based on judgment. This is usuallyextension of convenience sampling. For example, a researcher maydecide to draw the entire sample from one "representative" city, eventhough the population includes all cities. When using this method, theresearcher must be confident that the chosen sample is trulyrepresentative of the entire population.
3.
Quota sampling
is the non-probability equivalent of stratifiedsampling. Like stratified sampling, the researcher first identifies the
Set 2MB0024