Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
What Should Reshape the Globe Trades

What Should Reshape the Globe Trades

Ratings: (0)|Views: 55|Likes:
Published by tianjichuiyu

More info:

Published by: tianjichuiyu on Nov 18, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/18/2009

pdf

text

original

 
What Should Reshape the Globe Trades
the Law of Oppression Proliferating.
extracted form the He Yufengwork:
Power, Ethics anEconoics
Author
 
He Yufeng
何钰烽
Adam Smith believed that every animal must rely on efforts byitself to survive, and it need to know how to protect itself, healso believed that only human could exchange something eachother. Nevertheless, modern ecologists proved that animals alsohave abilities to exchange something. In America, where lives akind of blood sucking bats (vampire bat), they food on suckingother animal’s blood. If a bat has not sucked blood more than 60hours, it would die. So some mutual mechanism exist in thecommunities of these blood sucking bats. If a bat sucked a largemeal of blood, it would spit out some blood to feeding its hungrymates, despite of they are no relations at all. Nevertheless,ecologists found that there were following strict rules in thegame, bats would not feed members who just did free ride but didnot reward at all. Obviously, it is a mutual mechanism in nature.the magazine
 primate,
2005, it had recorded a exchange action ina community of chimpanzees. An other well known exchange actionin chimpanzees is that males use foods changing matingopportunities with females.Anthropologists and archaeologists argued that human had begun toexchange something with each other from the Stone Age, andprimitives had exchange they stone tools at long-distance. In
Lauriston Sharp’s
article
Steel Axes for Stone–Age Australians,
he narrated exchanges in primitive society.
 
When colonists hadarrived Australia first time, aborigines called
Yir Yoront
hadbeen the Stone Age still, they subsisted by hunting, fishing, andgathering. Stone axe was the most important tool in their
 
community, and it also played important roles in local socialrelations
 
it also was highly valued property. Women used it forfirewood harvesting, felling of trees and collect wild fruit, menused it for hunting and fishing, some times used it for Splitwild honeycomb which was inside tree. Stone axes belonged to men,but men could lend it to women, it was the unique power of men.
Yir Yoront
lived in a broad alluvial plain near north coast ofAustralia, but the raw stone which used to make stone axe is morethan 400 miles away. If
Yir Yoront
people wanted to make stoneaxes by themselves, it was a hard work. Fortunately, they needn’tdo it, they could get stone axes by exchanging with other tribes.Spears made from stingray spines were the major export, whilestone from tribes to the south for stone axe heads was the majorimport. The tribes which lived nearby
Yir Yoront
also did notmake stone axes by themselves they just middleman of the tradecirculations. However, when Western missionaries brought steelaxes to the aborigines in Australia, local societies were greatlyimpacted by these steel axes. Steel axe performed great advantagethan stone axe which aborigine used before, but steel axe werevery expansive, Yir Yoront men bothered day after day. If anyone who could give a steel axe to Yir Yoront man, the man wouldrather let his wife to make love to the one.What is the definition of commodity? In
Karl Marx’s
 
capital (DasKapital)
he mentioned that: “
A commodity is, in the first place,an object outside us, a thing that by its properties satisfieshuman wants of some sort or another”.
As neo-classic economicsdefinition,
commodity is anything which could be exchanged for satisfying human wants. Karl Marx 
argued that the essentialattribute of commodity is labor. However in realities, lot ofcommodities are not the exchange about labor-productions, forexample, a businessman want to bribe a officer for somecommercial interest, this exchange at least not concern any laborfactors for the officer who involved in. behaviors of exchangeare so complicated and diversified. In the Chinese classic
ZhuangZi
has an allegory about exchanging which showed the hugediversities between exchanges.
Once upon time, there were a family living in Song state(a seigneur existed in 11centuries BC – 286 BC), the family had subsisted their lives for generations by dyingand tanning, they made a sort of medicine which preventing crack of skin. Amerchant had known that, he bid five hundred golden coins for the formula ofpreventing crack. Senior of the family gathered all members to discuss that, theyargued that: we worked for generations just for several golden coins, now, one could
 
offer five hundred for the formula in one day, that is several times than we havegotten before. Finally, they decided to sell it to the merchant. Subsequently, themerchant devoted the formula to the king of Wu (a seigneur existed in 11 centuriesBC – 473 BC). At that time, in winters, Wu state was warring against Yue state. Bythe advance of the formula, soldiers could prevent crack in the float battles, andthey won the war. The king of Wu constituted the merchant as a feudal lord of aland. Both the family and merchant had the ability of prevent crack of skin, family just protected their hand, and the merchant could became a lord of a land.
ZhuangZi 
 
the Free Roam 
In this allegory, the family got currency in the exchange,corresponded, the merchant got powers of lording a land. In thecirculation of exchanges, the power of the patent became thepower of lord a land.Back to the Yir Yoront case, the man of Yir Yoront who wanted geta steel axe, was willing to letting his wife making lover with astranger. The man temporarily alienated his exclusive power ofmating with his wife. The exclusive power of mating exchanged the(power of) ownership of commodity in this case. Karl Marx arguedthat:
As values, all commodities are only definite masses of congealed labour-time.
This viewpoint had been challenged by manyeconomists. David Ricardo had mentioned that, he could notresolved such difficulty, why wine which had been stored incellars for couples of years cost equally to 100 pounds oak.Marginalism argued that the value of a commodity is relied on thesubjective evaluation of consumers. If a commodity embodying lotof labors not be sold in market, it has not any value. But themarginal utilities for individuals were so different thatmarginalism value theory lost its basic function of scales. LikeI mentioned in chapter 1, human brains do not work centrally, heor she works modularly and parallel. Such architectures of humanmind also limit rational of human behaviors.Yir Yoront man exchanged steel axe with the exclusive power ofmating with his wife. There are not labour in Yir Yoront side atall. The value of steel axe constituted of the power of mineexploitation, labour, the cost of long distance transportations,tax, and so on, but the cost of Yir Yoront was almost none. Andthe desire of merchant who wanted to mating with the man’s wifeprobably was involved by the Yir Yoront man self. What is theessential fact of the commodity exchange? It is power. Allexchanges in human societies are Human power in the abstract. In

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->