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Network Switching Tutorial

Network Switching Tutorial

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Published by: rajkumargrk on Nov 18, 2009
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05/13/2013

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Switches are great, they add network capacity and speed, but they are not a cure-all. How canyou tell if your network will benefit from switching? And how do you add switches to your networkdesign for the most benefit? This tutorial is written to answer these questions. Along the way we'lldescribe how switches work, and how they both harm and benefit your networking strategy. Andwe¹ll discuss different network types, so you can profile your network and gauge the potentialbenefit of switching for your environment.
What is a Switch?
Switches occupy the same place in the network as hubs. Unlike hubs, switches examine eachpacket and process it accordingly rather than simply repeating the signal to all ports. Switchesmap the Ethernet addresses of the nodes residing on each network segment and then allow onlythe necessary traffic to pass through the switch. When a packet is received by the switch, theswitch examines the destination and source hardware addresses and compares them to a tableof network segments and addresses. If the segments are the same, the packet is dropped("filtered"); if the segments are different, then the packet is "forwarded" to the proper segment.Additionally, switches prevent bad or misaligned packets from spreading by not forwarding them.Filtering of packets and the regeneration of forwarded packets enables switching technology tosplit a network into separate collision domains. Regeneration of packets allows for greater distances and more nodes to be used in the total network design, and dramatically lowers theoverall collision rates. In switched networks, each segment is an independent collision domain. Inshared networks all nodes reside in one, big shared collision domain.Easy to install, most switches are self learning. They determine the Ethernet addresses in use oneach segment, building a table as packets are passed through the switch. This "plug and play"element makes switches an attractive alternative to hubs.Switches can connect different networks types (such as Ethernet and Fast Ethernet) or networksof the same type. Many switches today offer high-speed links, like Fast Ethernet or FDDI, thatcan be used to link the switches together or to give added bandwidth to important servers that geta lot of traffic. A network composed of a number of switches linked together via these fast uplinksis called a "collapsed backbone" network.Dedicating ports on switches to individual nodes is another way to speed access for criticalcomputers. Servers and power users can take advantage of a full segment for one node, so somenetworks connect high traffic nodes to a dedicated switch port.Full duplex is another method to increase bandwidth to dedicated workstations or servers. To usefull duplex, both network interface cards used in the server or workstation, and the switch mustsupport full duplex operation. Full duplex
doubles the potential bandwidth on that link,providing 20 Mbps for Ethernet and 200 Mbps for Fast Ethernet.
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Network Congestion
As more users are added to a shared network or as applications requiringmore data are added, performance deteriorates. This is because all users ona shared network are competitors for the Ethernet bus. A moderately loaded10 Mbps Ethernet network is able to sustain utilization of 35% and throughputin the neighborhood of 2.5 Mbps after accounting for packet overhead, interpacket gaps andcollisions. A moderately loaded Fast Ethernet shares 25 Mbps of real data in the samecircumstances. With shared Ethernet and Fast Ethernet, the likelihood of collisions increases asmore nodes and/or more traffic is added to the shared collision domain.Ethernet itself is a shared media, so there are rules for sending packets to avoid conflicts andprotect data integrity. Nodes on an Ethernet network send packets when they determine thenetwork is not in use. It is possible that two nodes at different locations could try to send data atthe same time. When both PCs are transferring a packet to the network at the same time, acollision will result. Both packets are retransmitted, adding to the traffic problem. Minimizingcollisions is a crucial element in the design and operation of networks. Increased collisions areoften the result of too many users or too much traffic on the network, which results in a lot of contention for network bandwidth. This can slow the performance of the network from the userspoint of view. Segmenting, where a network is divided into different pieces joined together logically with switches or routers, reduces congestion in an overcrowded network.Collision rates measure the percentage of packets that are collisions. Some collisions areinevitable, with less than 10% common in well running networks.
The Factors AffectingNetwork Efficiency
- Amount of traffic- Number of nodes- Size of packets- Network diameter 
Measuring Network Efficiency
 - Average to peak load devition- Collision Rate- Utilization Rate
Utilization rate is another widely accessible statistic about the health of a network. This statistic isavailable in Novell's Console monitor and WindowsNT performance monitor as well as anyoptional LAN analysis software. Utilization in an average network above 35% indicates potentialproblems. This 35% utilization is near optimum, but some networks experience higher or lower utilization optimums due to factors such as packet size and peak load deviation.
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A switch is said to work at "wire speed" if it has enough processing power to handle full ethernetspeed at minimum packet sizes. Most switches on the market are well ahead of network trafficcapabilities supporting full "wire speed" of ethernet, 14,480 pps (packets per second).
Routers
Routers work in a manner similar to switches and bridges in that they filter out network traffic.Rather than doing so by packet addresses they filter by specific protocol. Routers were born outof the necessity for dividing networks logically instead of physically. An IP router can divide anetwork into various subnets so that only traffic destined for particular IP addresses can passbetween segments. Routers recalculate the checksum, and rewrite the MAC header of everypacket. The price paid for this type of intelligent forwarding and filtering is usually calculated interms of latency, or the delay that a packet experiences inside the router. Such filtering takesmore time than that exercised in a switch or bridge which only looks at the Ethernet address butin more complex networks network efficiency is improved. An additional benefit of routers is their automatic filtering of broadcasts, but overall they are complicated to setup.
Switch Benefits
- Isolates traffic, relieving congestion- Separates collision domains, reducingcollisions- Segments, restarting distance and repeater rules
Switch Costs
- Price: currently 3 to 5 times the price of ahub- Packet processing time is longer than in ahub- Monitoring the network is more complicated
General Benefits of Switching
Switches replace hubs in networking designs, and they are more expensive. So why is thedesktop switching market doubling ever year with huge numbers sold? The price of switches isdeclining precipitously, while hubs are a mature technology with small price declines. This meansthat there is far less difference between switch costs and hub costs than there used to be, andthe gap is narrowing.Since switches are self learning, they are as easy to install as a hub. Just plug them in and go.And they operate on the same hardware layer as a hub, so there are no protocol issues.There are two reasons for switches being included in network designs. First, a switch breaks onenetwork into many small networks so the distance and repeater limitations are restarted. Second,this same segmentation isolates traffic and reduces collisions relieving network congestion. It isvery easy to identify the need for distance and repeater extension, and to understand this benefit
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