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Animal Pelt on

Animal Pelt on

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Published by: libero95 on Nov 19, 2009
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07/10/2010

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 ® 
Cooperative Extension Service 
College of Agriculture and Home Economics
To find more resources for your business, home or family, visit the College of Agriculture and Home Economics on the World Wide Web at www.cahe.nmsu.edu 
How to Prepare Pelts
Guide L-101
Jon Boren and Brian J. Hurd
Extension Wildlife Specialist and Extension Research Specialist
Correctly preparing pelts is essential to secure topmarket price or to allow for successful tanning. If pelts are to be sold, it is simply good business toprepare them properly. Uniform preparation is animportant consideration because pelts are graded bysize, quality and appearance. For those wishing totan pelts for personal use, pelts must be preparedproperly to facilitate a high quality finished prod-uct, whether tanned at home or sent to a commer-cial tannery. This publication presents proceduresand techniques for skinning animals and preparingthe pelts for sale or tanning. If you intend to sellyour pelts, it is best to check periodically with anestablished fur buyer for preferred methods of skin-ning and handling, as they may change. Similarly,you should check with the tannery you plan tosend pelts to if having them tanned commercially.Most furbearing animals alternate between win-ter and summer coats. Winter coats provide theanimal with added protection from the elementsand are thicker and fuller than summer coats.Therefore, the most valuable furs are taken duringthe colder months. The winter coats of youngeranimals become prime (fully developed guard hairand underfur) earlier in the fall than those of olderanimals. The time frame of when a pelt is mostmarketable varies with species of animal, climate,region and market conditions. However, most fursare thick and marketable by early December eventhough they may not be fully prime.Fox and coyote pelts begin to drop in qualityand appearance during the breeding season, whichis usually from late January through February inNew Mexico. Bobcat pelts are often prime as late asApril, but condition of fur varies considerably byindividual.Before harvesting any furbearing animal, it is im-portant to know and understand all state rules andregulations regarding harvest, possession, and tradeor sale of furbearing animals and their pelts. InNew Mexico, a furbearer license is required for resi-dents age 12 and older and all nonresidents tohunt, trap or possess protected furbearers. Pro-tected furbearers (raccoon, badger, weasel, fox,ringtail, bobcat, beaver, muskrat and nutria) can beharvested only during furbearer season. Nonresi-dents also must have a license to harvest unpro-tected furbearers (skunk and coyote). When usingtraps to harvest furbearing animals, a Trapper IDnumber is required. This ID number is providedfree by the New Mexico Department of Game andFish (NMDG&F) and can be obtained by calling(505) 476-8038. All bobcat pelts are subject to spe-cial tagging requirements and must be presented toa licensed fur dealer or any NMDG&F officewithin 30 days of harvest for tagging. It is illegal totransport across state lines, barter, sell or otherwisedispose of any bobcat pelt taken in New Mexicounless it is properly tagged. Furbearers other thanbobcat are not subject to the special taggingrequirements.The New Mexico Department of Game andFish annually publishes rules, regulations andseason dates for hunting and trapping furbearers inthe Big Game Rules and Information Booklet. Thisbooklet is available where New Mexico huntinglicenses are sold or online at
http://www.wildlife.state.nm.us
. Always stay up to date with the mostrecent booklet, as seasons and regulations maychange periodically. For further information, youcan contact the NMDG&F state office by phone at(505) 476-8000.
This publication is scheduled to be updated and reissued 10/09.
 
Guide L-101
Page 2
SKINNING
Many pelts are ruined by waiting too long betweenharvest and skinning of the animal. Warm weathercan cause pelts to “taint” (early stages of decay) andhair to “slip” (loosen or fall out) within an hourafter death, particularly if they are exposed todirect sunlight. Therefore, animals should beskinned as soon as possible to prevent degradationor loss of pelts, especially when temperatures areabove freezing.Furbearing animals are skinned either “open” or“cased.” Example locations of the cuts for these twomethods are shown (Fig. 1). In the open method,pelts are removed by cutting the skin up the bellyfrom the vent to the chin, then peeling it awayfrom the underlying tissue. Cased pelts are removedby cutting the skin up the back of the hind legsfrom the feet to the vent. The pelt is peeled back and removed much like removing a pulloversweater. Feet, claws and tail are removed on somepelts and left attached on others, depending onspecies. On some, the tail is split on the underside.Buyers, in general, agree on some techniques.Beavers are traditionally skinned open andstretched into a round shape with the feet and tailremoved, but the legs are not split. Badgers andraccoons may be skinned open or cased, but check with your buyer to see what he prefers. Muskratsare skinned cased and stretched skin side out.Coyotes, foxes and bobcats should be cased anddried fur side out.Fur color and quality are two reasons for the var-ied way pelts are sold. Furs such as muskrat carrythe same color throughout the pelt, and the colorcan be observed on the rump of the pelt. Coyote,fox and bobcat furs may vary widely in colorthroughout the pelt, and since color is important inpelt value, these pelts are sold fur side out. Somebuyers prefer to have the claws left on larger bobcatpelts so they can be mounted as trophies or madeinto rugs.Although a knife is needed only for a few cuts onmost pelts, those cuts will be much easier if theknife is very sharp. When cutting through hide, cutfrom the skin side whenever possible, as cuttingthrough hair will quickly dull the knife and make itdifficult to achieve a clean cut. Keep knives sharp,but be careful not to accidentally damage the hidewhen skinning.Caution must be exercised while skinning andhandling any furbearing animal as they can carrydiseases transmissible to humans. Plague, tularemiaand leptospirosis have been acquired in the han-dling and skinning of furbearing animals. Otherdiseases, such as rabies, can also be acquiredthrough open cuts or wounds. Some general pre-cautions that should be taken to reduce risks of ex-posure and prevent infection are:1. Wear protective clothing including plastic, rub-ber or latex gloves when skinning or fleshing.2. Scrub the work area, knives, other tools and re-usable gloves with soap or detergent followed bydisinfection with diluted household bleach.3. Avoid eating and drinking while handling orskinning animals, and wash hands thoroughlywhen finished.4. Safely dispose of carcasses and tissues as well asany contaminated disposable items such as latexgloves.5. Contact a physician if you become sick followingexposure to a wild animal or its ectoparasites (i.e.ticks and fleas). Inform the physician of yourpossible exposure to a wildlife-carried disease.
SKINNING BEAVERS
To skin a beaver, make a single slit from the base of the tail straight through the vent to the tip of thelower jaw (Fig. 1). Be careful not to cut into thebody cavity or damage the castor glands on eitherside of the vent. Cut the feet and tail from the car-cass at the hair-line. Because a beaver’s skin is se-cured firmly to the body by muscle and gristle, youwill need to use a knife to free it from the body asyou peel it away. Begin skinning along the initialincision and work toward the back. When skinningthe legs, simply work the pelt over the stump of each leg without cutting through the hide. Withexperience, you may find that leaving considerableamounts of flesh on the hide will make it easier todo a neat fleshing job later on. Meat left on thehide can provide material to hold onto while flesh-ing a slippery beaver pelt.
 
Guide L-101
Page 3
SKINNING COYOTES, FOXESAND BOBCATS
Coyotes, foxes and bobcats are not difficult to skinand are among the most commonly sold pelts.Skinning is usually easiest if the animal is hung bythe tendons of the hind legs at shoulder height. Ashort rope with a harness snap attached to each endand thrown over a beam is a simple, effectivemethod of hanging the animal. Instead of hangingthe animal, some skinners prefer to anchor the ropeto the bumper of a vehicle.To skin a coyote, fox or bobcat for commercialsale, cut the skin from the rear pad of one hind footup the back of the leg to the base of the tail, andcontinue down the other leg to the rear pad of theother hind foot. There is a fairly distinct change incolor between the fur on the inner and outer sur-face of the hind legs. The skinning cuts should fol-low this color-transition line as closely as possiblewhen cutting along the back of the leg. Make ashort cut across on the belly side of the vent toleave a small triangle of skin, including the vent, onthe carcass. Cut around all four legs just above thefeet (except when fur buyers want feet and claws
Figure 1. Skinning cuts on open and cased pelts.Figure 2. Wooden Boning Tool.
left attached) and work the pelt away from the hindlegs and tail. The tailbone can be pulled out byhand or by gripping the tailbone loosely with a pairof pliers, but a small wooden boning tool (Fig. 2)may be helpful. Figure 3 demonstrates the use of aboning tool.A knife is usually needed only for beginning cutsand skinning around the head because pelts can bepulled off easily. Pull the pelt down over the body,the shoulders and the front legs to the ears. Cut theear cartilage off next to the skull, and carefully skinout the rest of the head. Be particularly careful toavoid cutting holes near the eyes and lips. Leave thenose and lips attached tothe pelt.Take extreme care when skinning around an areawhere a bullet or shot entered or left the body. Bul-let holes (or holes made accidentally while skin-ning) should be sewn shut before final stretching.Dental floss or fishing line can be used as thread.Be sure the hole is sewn so there are no bulges andso colors on the fur side are properly matched.The fur of pelts should be brushed clean eitherbefore or after skinning. A horse brush or house-hold scrubbing brush works well for this. Washingmay be necessary to remove blood and other for-eign material. A high pressure stream from a gardenhose works well. The fur side of the pelts should beallowed to dry before being stretched, as they mayspoil if stretched while wet. This is especially truefor cased pelts because the fur side receives littleventilation in the first stages of stretching.

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