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Isaac Newton's Apples Found to Be Rotten

Isaac Newton's Apples Found to Be Rotten

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Published by walkley8
Recent experimental results violate Newton's law of inertia, and Newton's unstated hypothesis that inertial mass is equivalent to gravitation­al mass.
Recent experimental results violate Newton's law of inertia, and Newton's unstated hypothesis that inertial mass is equivalent to gravitation­al mass.

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Published by: walkley8 on Jun 01, 2014
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June 19, 1995 THE NEW FEDERALIST Page 11
Behind the News
Isaac Newton's Apples Are Found To Be Rotten
"# Carol $hite
On the le%t Rene escartes( on the ri)ht alileo alilei*two o% the e+piri,cist %oes o% the -eplerian +ethod.
The assumption that inetia! an" ga#itationa! mass ae i"enti$a! is a%out as $!ose to Ho!& Wit as &ou $an get in the s$ienti'i$ Esta%!ishment o' to"a&( This is the i"ea that an app!e 'a!!ing 'om a tee )hi$h hits &ou on the nose, is e*ui#a!ent in pun$h to the same app!e e!ease" 'om a s!ingshot an" aime" at &ou 'a$e(The h&pothesis un"e!&ing this suppose" !a) o' natue, "epen"s upon a$$ep+tan$e o' that notion that the thee "imensions o' spa$eup+an"+"o)n, si"e+to+si"e, an" %a$-)a"s+an"+'o+)a"s .the /, &, an" 0 a/es o' atesian geomet&2ae i"enti$a!( In this )a& the o%#ious $haa$teisti$s o' ph&si$a! spa$e3time ae $on#enient!& o#e!oo-e", an" then e+impote" %a$- into  ph&si$s as athe m&steious me$hani$a! popeties o' matte(
When Johannes 4ep!e esta%!ishe" the !a)s o' p!aneta& motion, he "i" so )ith the intention o' e/p!aining ho) it )as that the so!a s&stem itse!' )as $eate"( 4ep!e )as 'u!!& $ogni0ant that hea#& o%e$ts ten"e" to %e atta$te" to ea$h othe, an" that the stength o' that atta$tion )as popotiona! to thei mass(He ee$te", ho)e#e, the Aistote!ian notion em%a$e" %& 6a!i!eo an" Des$ates, that the motion o' hea#en!& %o"ies ha" to %e pe'e$t!& $i$u!a( Fo him, the e!!ipti$a! o%its o' the p!anets )ee "e'inite poo' that spa$e )as not empt& in the sense that 6a!i!eo, Des$ates, an" then Ne)ton assete",  %ut )as instea" )hat might %e $a!!e" in mo"en !anguage, a *uantum 'ie!"(7n!i-e mo"en *uantum 'ie!" theo&, though, 4ep!e8s theo& in$!u"e" as a $haa$teisti$ o' this ph&si$a! spa$e3time a hamoni$ ogani0ation( In mo"en theo&, the hamonies )hi$h he 'oun" in the p!aneta& o%its ae  %ought in 'om !e't 'ie!", as it )ee, an" $a!!e" esonan$es(
Assault "# British E+piricis+
4ep!e8s metho" $ame un"e atta$- 'om the :itish empii$ist s$hoo! o'  ph&si$s, %ut s$ientists su$h as a! 6auss an" :enha" Riemann un"estoo" that this :itish attempt at a ta-eo#e %i" in s$ien$e, )as a 'un"amenta! atta$- upon s$ien$e itse!'( The 'au"u!ent assetion that Ne)ton )as a geat s$ientist, )as an" is ust a $u"e attempt to "e#a!ue genuine s$ien$e, a%out as ham+'iste" as :itain8s attempt to sei0e the )o!"8s e$onomi$ assets though the 'au" o' 'ee+ma-et e$onomi$s to"a&(Whi!e A!%et Einstein $ame $!ose to tho)ing out the Ne)tonian36a!i!ean  paa"igm in his genea! e!ati#it& theo&, he )as un)i!!ing to ee$t the assetion o' the i"entit& o' ga#itationa! an" inetia! mass( A s$ientist to"a&, :enamin So!"ano, has in 'a$t "e#e!ope" an a!tenate !oo- at man& aspe$ts o' 'ie!" theo&, "oing ust that(So!"ano %e!ie#es that the eneg& )hi$h %in"s togethe atoms an" mo!e$u!es .)hi$h itse!' is $onsi"ee" to ha#e a mass, a$$o"ing to Einstein8s 'amous "i$tum, E ; m$
2 is not s&mmeti$, %ut that this $omponent o' the massiness o' matte "emonstates an anti+Ne)tonian non+e*ui#a!en$e( Nee"!ess to sa&, he is teate" as a paiah %& the maoit& o' the ph&si$s $ommunit&(Late!&, ho)e#e, thee ha#e %een in"i$ations that the maoit& ma& %e 'o$e" to "ea! seious!& )ith So!"ano8s assetion, %e$ause o' anoma!ies no) %eing )itnesse" in su$h pe#ious gi#ens as the $onstan$& o' the suppose"
ga#itationa! $onstant( The ga#itationa! $onstant appeas in some e/pei+ments to %e $hanging in spa$e an" o#e time( This $an %e e/p!aine" on!& %& "umping the Ne)tonian paa"igm on$e an" 'o a!!(John =a""o/, e"ito o' the :itish s$ien$e ouna!
, has %een 'o$e" to ta-e note o' the go)ing num%e o' $a$-s in the "am( .See
 <>, Api! 1995, page >59, :e&on" Einstein8s Theo& o' 6a#itation?2To put the matte in %ie', Ne)ton8s app!es ae 'oun" to ha#e %een *uite otten( The !atest e/peiments to sho) this $ome 'om a goup e''ot in#o!#ing 6eman, Austian, an" Amei$an s$ientists 'om uni#esities in Inns%u$-, Austia an" =uni$h, 6eman&, an" the 7(S( Nationa! Institute o' Stan"a"s an" Te$hno!og&, 'ome!& the Nationa! :ueau o' Stan"a"s(Thei esu!ts ae epote" in the Api! 1@, 1995 issue o'
 Physical Review  Letters
, pp( <59+B<, E''e$ti#e+=ass+Enhan$e" De'!e$tion o' Neutons in  Noninetia! Fames, 4( Raum et a!( To put the matte most simp!&, thei esu!ts #io!ate Ne)ton8s 'ist !a), the !a) o' inetia, an" Ne)ton8s unstate", though un"e!&ing, h&pothesis that inetia! mass is e*ui#a!ent to ga#itation+a! mass, )hi$h is the pin$ip!e o' e*ui#a!en$e(As state" in a pe#ious e'een$e" pape, the 'in"ings o' these s$ientists ae that the neutons ( ( ( )i!! 'a!! up)a"sC The neuton e''e$ts ae moe spe$+ta$u!a an" moe "ie$t!& o%se#a%!e than those 'om the e''e$ti#e mass o' e!e$tons( This $an %e ta$e" to the "i''eent est masses an" intea$tions o' the t)o pati$!es an" to the a#ai!a%i!it& o' a %eam that $an popagate o#e !age "istan$es in $&sta!s( Ho)e#e, the ph&si$a! oigin is the same An&  pati$!e, massi#e o mass+!ess, in a suita%!& peio"i$ me"ium, )i!! e/hi%it an a%noma! inetia(
Neutron i%%raction
As Louis "e :og!ie 'ist sho)e" in the 19<@s, the suppose"!& "is$ete  pati$!es .!i-e e!e$tons, neutons, an" potons2 o' )hi$h atoms ae ma"e, $an a$t as i' the& ae pat o' a $ontinuous )a#e .$a!!e" "e :og!ie )a#es in his hono2( An" ust !i-e !ight )a#es, the "e :og!ie matte )a#es $an e/hi%it a!! t&pes o' )a#e+!i-e phenomena, su$h as "i''a$tion an" inte'e+en$e( :ut the "e :og!ie matte )a#es pemit a moe ea"& a$$ess to shote )a#e!engths than is the $ase )ith o"ina& !ight )a#es( This 'a$t has !e" to the e!e$ton mi$os$ope, )hi$h is a%!e to see stu$tues on a mu$h sma!!e s$a!e(

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