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Bincangkan kepentingan analisis SWAT dalam pentadbiran awam.

Bincangkan kepentingan analisis SWAT dalam pentadbiran awam.

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Tugasan SKSJ 1043: Pengantar Pentadbiran Awam
Tugasan SKSJ 1043: Pengantar Pentadbiran Awam

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Published by: Mohd Noh bin Md. Yunus on Nov 19, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/25/2013

 
UOUB >8352 Xj`kn`snq Xj`sncafqn` N{nm
Xj`cnlzgzn`
N`ngfufu U[IS mjqzxnon` unsz onjcnl xjqn`en`kn` usqnsjkfo vn`k mj`enqfOjoznsn`,Usqj`kls&' Ojgjmnln` ,[jno`juu&' Xjgzn`k,Ixxzsz`fsv& cn` N`enmn`,Sqjns&sjqlncnx ujuznsz ojxzszun`' oqfufu cn` cnunq vn`k non` cfgnoun`non` nsnzxz` sjgnl ajqgnozcngnm ujuznsz iqkn`funuf.Xncn ojafnunn`vn n`ngfufu U[IS f`f cfgnozon` igjl iqkn`funuf xjq`fnnkn` cn` oiqxiqns ankf mj`bn`n cn` mjmxjqigjl xj`cnxnsn` mnlzxz` mj`vjgjunfon`ujkngn aj`szo mnungnl vn`k sfmazg ujlf`kkn nolfq`vn mj`vjanaon` xqjusnuf ujujaznl uvnqfonsmjqz`czm.Nolfq-nolfq f`f n`ngfufu U[IS sfcno ln`vn cfkz`non` igjl iqkn`funuf vn`k ajqiqjn`snufon` ojz`sz`kn` unlnbn ojqn`n ojcnxnsn` ajajqnxn ancn`-ancn` azon` ojqnbnn`' xjqszazln`-xjqszazln` uiufng cn` xnqsf xigfsfo sjgnl mzgn mj`knmngon` xj`cjonsn` n`ngfufuU[IS cngnm ujsfnx aj`kojg vn`k cfn`bzqon` igjl iqkn`funuf-iqkn`funuf sjqujazs.N`ngfufu U[ISf`f sjgnl cfnunuon` igjl ujiqn`k xj`nuflns xjq`fnknn` cn` xj`kzqzun` cf Nmjqfon Uvnqfons vn`k ajq`nmn Ngajqs Lzmxjqv
>
ujofsnq snlz`-snlz` 48n` cn` ;8n`.Nxnafgn ofsn mjmaf`en`kon` sj`sn`k ojxj`sf`kn` n`ngfufu U[IS cfcngnm Xj`sncafqn`N{nm' ofsn mjgflns an`vno xnonq olzuzu`vn cfafcn`k xj`kzqzun` mj`kjgznqon` cjdf`fuf cn`oi`ujx sjqxjqf`ef cn` ajqajrn mj`kj`nf snoqfdn` “Xj`sncafqn` N{nm‖.Xj`sncafqn` n{nmmj`zqzs C{fkls [ngci cngnm azoz`vn vn`k ajqbzczg Egnuufe Id Xzagfe Ncmf`fusqnsfi`mj`cjdf`nufon` Xj`sncafqn` N{nm fngnl iqkn`funuf cn` xj`kzqzun` mn`zufn cn` aj`cn-aj`cnz`szo mj`enxnf szbzn`-szbzn` ojqnbnn` vn`k cfn`kknx ujanknf uj`f cn` unf`u xj`kzqzun`ujanknfmn`n vn`k cnxns cfonfson` ojxncn lng jl{ng ujujaznl `jkjqf nsnz `jknqn ,Nlmnc NsiqvLzuunf`' 188>&.Xj`sncafqn` N{nm bzkn mj`zqzs O.Qnmn`nsln` cngnm azoz`vn vn`k ajqbzczgOi`ujx Nunu Xj`sncafqn` N{nm ujanknf ngns ojqnbnn` vn`k xj`sf`k vn`k ujenqn gn`kuz`ksjqgfans cngnm mjmajqf ojajqojun`n` mn`n-mn`n ufusjm xjmjqf`snln` cfmn`n f`usfszuf xj`sncafqn` n{nm sjqmnuzo xjkn{nf-xjkn{nf`vn sjqgfans ujenqn gn`kzu`k cngnm mj`bnvnon`ujmzn cnunq n{nm vn`k cfgzgzuon` sjqgjafl cnlzgz igjl ancn` xjqz`cn`kn`, O.Qnmn`nsln`'>665&.Nxnafgn ofsn mjgflns ojczn-czn cjdf`fuf f`f cnxnsgnl ofsn onfson` anln{n xj`snafqn` N{nmncngnl jbj` vn`k mj`bngn`on` nxn bzn cnunq cn` szbzn` ojqnbnn` ankf ojujbnlsjqnn` qnovnscfujujaznl `jknqn.
>
Ngajqs Lzmxjqv ,>614-188:& mjqzxnon` kqnczn` cnqf Fggi`fu Z`ftjqufsv.Ajojqbn cf Usn`diqcQjujnqel F`usfszsj cfmn`n xnuzon` vn`k cfojsznf`vn sjgnl mj`jmzf onjcnl U[IS vn`kcfkz`non` ujlf`kkn oj lnqf f`f.
Af`en`kon` Ojxj`sf`kn` N`ngfufu U{is Cngnm Xj`sncafqn` N{nmXnkj
>
 
UOUB >8352 Xj`kn`snq Xj`sncafqn` N{nm
Cfn{ng-n{ng snlz` 68n`' Mngnvufn xncn ojsfon fsz cfxfmxf` igjl VNA Cnsi Ujqf Cq Mnlnslfq Milnmnc sjgnl mzgn mjgn`enqon` unsz knknun` vn`k cfoj`ngf ujanknf ojqnbnn` ajqsjqnuon` ojxncn sjo`igikf mnogzmns cn` ujlf`kkn oj lnqf f`f qnovns Mngnvufn unan` lnqf nmnsuf`i`fm cj`kn` z`konxn` ojqnbnn` jgjosqi`fo vn`k cfnmngon` igjl ojqnbnn` Mngnvufn
1
cj{nunf`f.Knknun` f`f nolfq`vn sjgnl cfsnoqfdon` igjl ujanlnkfn` xj`konbf-xj`knonbf xj`kzqzun`ujanknf ujanlnkfn` cnqfxncn xjqzanln` Xj`sncafqn` N{nm cngnm ujujaznl `jknqn.Szknun` f`f non` ezan ojxj`sf`kn` cn` xjqn`n` n`ngfufu U[IS vn`k mjmdiozuon`ojoznsn`,U&' ojgjmnln`,[&' xjgzn`k,I& cn` n`enmn`,S& xj`kkz`nn` sjo`igikf mnogzmnsojnsnu xj`sncafqn` n{nm cf`jknqn Mngnvufn olzuzu`vn cn` ajajqnxn aznl `jknqn gnf`.Sjo`igikfmnogzmns f`f lncfq ojsfon `jknqn cngnm xqiuju xjmanlnqzn` sjqlncnx xj`sncafqn` n{nm ujbnbnq cj`kn` gjcnon` mnogzmns vn`k sn`xn ujmxncn`.
f.
Ojoznsn` ,Usqj`kls&
Ojmz`ezgn` sjo`igikf mnogzmns cngnm xj`sncafqn` n{nm sjgnl mjmxjqojmnuon` gnkfufusjm cn` mjmxjqsf`konson` ojejonxn` zqzu sncafq ojqnbnn` cfmn`n cj`kn` ncn`vn f`usqzmj`sf`f ujkngn qjoic cn` mnogzmns xj`sf`k cnxns cfufmxn` ujenqn ojmnu cn` sjquzuz` cfcngnm unszdnfg vn`k sjqnszq cn` mzcnl cfqzbzo nxnafgn cfojlj`cnof.Cngnm xncn fsz fn bzkn sjgnl ajqbnvnmjmf`zmon` xj`kz`nn` aiqn`k ujbnbnq cj`kn` zunln ojqnbnn` z`szo mj`bncfon` ojqnbnn` `vnujanknf ojqnbnn` sn`xn ojqsnu nsnz xnxjqgjuu ncmf`fusqnsfi` cngnm zqzun`-zqzun` ujlnqfn`cfunmxf`k mj`bnmf` ojsjgzun` cngnm lng mjmazns ojxzszun` ujuznsz xqiuju fsz' azsfq-azsfq vn`kgjafl qjgjtn` cnxns cfffufon` xncn aiqn`k vn`k cfujcfnon` ujenqn i`-gf`j cn` sjxns mj`kfozsuxjufdfonuf ujuznsz bnansn`.Xfnknm xjgn`kkn` cfxjqoj`ngon` uzxnvn xjgn`kkn` cnxns mj`kjsnlzf xjqolfcmnsn` vn`k anong mjqjon `fomnsf cnqf ujuznsz bnansn` ujenqn sfcno gn`kuz`k ozngfsf cn` snlnx ojejonxn` xjojqbn-xjojqbn cfujosiq n{nm cnxns cfsf`konson` ojqn`n f`kf` mjmj`zlf sz`szsn` xfnknm xjgn`kkn`' xfnknm f`f cnxns mjman`sz ojqnbnn` mjmxjqsf`konson` xqiuju xj`vnmxnfn` xjqolfcmnsn` ojxncn xjgn`kkn``vn.Cngnm snlz` >663' ojqnbnn` sjgnl mjgzgzuon` ujan`vno 661.45 bzsn ankf mj`koimxzsjqon` nkj`uf-nkj`uf ojqnbnn` ,Nlmnc Nsiqv Lzuunf`' 188>&.Cngnm
1
Mzgsfmjcfn Uzxjq Eiqqfciq,MUE& ncngnl f`fufnsfd ojqnbnn` cngnm mjmxjqonunon` afcn`ksjo`igikf mnogzmns'Cfnunuon` xncn snlz` >664 mjqn`kozmf on{nun` OGEE' OGFN'Xzsqnbnvn cn` Evajqbnvn.Xncn ; cfujmajq 1884 gjmanl ogn`k sjgnl sjquj`nqnf ujanknfon{nun` cngnm MUE
Af`en`kon` Ojxj`sf`kn` N`ngfufu U{is Cngnm Xj`sncafqn` N{nmXnkj
1
 
UOUB >8352 Xj`kn`snq Xj`sncafqn` N{nm
mjmnusfon` xjqolfcnmsn` i`-gf`j cnxns cfsjqfmn ujenqn mj`vjgzqzl cfongn`kn` qnovns ojqnbnn`sjgnl mjmxjqoj`ngon` Qn`konfn` Xjqolfcmnsn` N{nm
5
nsnz XU@. Mjgngzf XU@ f`f iqn`k qnmnfcnxns mj`bngn`on` ujkngn sqn`unouf xjmanvnqn` ujenqn i`-gf`j cf Xjbnans-xjbnans Xiu.Cngnmzunln ojqnbnn` mjmxjqejxnson` xqiuju lnqfn` cfxjbnans xjqngnsn` nzsimnuf xjbnans cfkz`non`cj`kn` gjafl mj`vjgzqzl uzxnvn xqiuju ujxjqsf ozsfxn` lnufg' xqiujun` sjou' xj`vngzqn` nqnln`cn` mnogzmns sjqlnufg gjafl anfo cn` jdfuj`.Ojqnbnn` bzkn sjgnl mjmaf`n xj`kongn` cnsn ankf szbzn` mjmzcnlon` iqn`k qnmnfmj`cnxnson` mnogzmns vn`k ajqozngfsf cn` sjxns.N`snqn xn`kongn` cnsn vn`k cfkz`non` ujxjqsfXjqolfcmnsn` Mnogzmns Sngfn` Sjqzu Un{fs ,Xngmifgu&' Ufqfmgf`o 
3
cn` Sngfn` Xjqolfcmnsn`N{nm ,EUG& sjgnl cf{zbzcon`.Szbzn` nkj`uf-nkj`uf f`f ncngnl mjmzcnlon` xj`vngzqn`mnogzmns vn`k unlfl cfsjqfmn igjl iqn`k qnmnf cn` xjqn`n` vn`k cfmnf`on` igjl nkj`uf-nkj`ufsjqujazs cfunmxf`k mj`f`konson` xjqunf`kn` cj`kn` ujosiq u{nusn.Xj`zazln` nkj`uf ujxjqsfUfqfm vn`k cfszknuon` z`szo mj`bnkn ozngfsf xjqolfcmnsn` cnxns cfgflns nxnafgn Cnsi Uqf Cq Mnlnslfq Milnmnc xncn ojsfon fsz mj`knqnlon` uzxnvn Ufqfm mjgnozoon` unsz snlnx xfn{nfn`vn`k cf`nmnon` FUI 6888 cfmn`n xj`jon`n` ojxncn ozngfsf ojqbn cfsjon`on` cngnm ujosiq n{nm ujsjqz`vn mjmn`kof`on` gnkf xjqszmazln` xqiczosftfsf cfongn`kn` xjojqbn ujosiq n{nm.Sjo`igikf mnogzmns bzkn mjman`sz mj`vioi`k xjqszmazln` joi`imf cngnm `jknqnujanknf ei`sil cj`kn` xjmazonn` MUE an`vno xjgnazq-xjgnazq nuf`k mj`n`nm micng ojnsnu xqibjo sjqujazs f`f mj`vjanaon` xjqszmazln` joi`imf cngnm `jknqn ajqojman`k cn` mnbzujsnqnd cj`kn` `jknqn-`jknqn mnbz vn`k gnf`.Ozngfsf lfczx qnovns bzkn cnxns cfsf`konson` nxnafgn qnovns sfcno xjqgz gnkf mj`z`kkzujuznsz ojxzszun` fsz cngnm bn`kon {nosz vn`k gnmn ojqn`n cj`kn` ojmzcnln` vn`k cfujcfnon`ujkngn ojxzszun` vn`k cfxzszuon` igjl ojqnbnn` cnxns cfunmxnfon` ujenqn ln`cu-i` ojxncn xjgn`kkn`.Qnovns bzkn cnxns mj`fgnf cn` mjmajqfon` oimj` ajqlzaz`k ufusjm xj`sncafqn`ojqnbnn` ujenqn sjqzu nxnafgn gnmn`-gnmn` ujun{n`k olzuzu z`szo qnovns mj`vngzqon` xn`cn`kn` cn` nxn bzn mnungnl vn`k cflncnxf cj`kn` ln`vn mj`knoujuon` ujkngn xjqmnungnln`
5
Qn`konfn` Xjqolfcmnsn` N{nm mjqzxnon` qn`konfn` ufusjm sngfn` nxgfonuf vn`kmjmaigjlon` ujkngn xjmanvnqn` nsnz xjmanlnqzn` xjganknf xjqolfcnmnsn` nkj`uf-nkj`uf ojqnbnn` cfgnozoon` cf Xjbnans Xiu.
3
Ufqfmgf`o mj`vjcfnon` oigjouf mnogzmns ajqonfsn` sjo`igikf mnogzmns' Usn`cnqcMngnvufn' Xnsj`' Bzq`ng-bzq`ng sjo``fong' Cfqjosiqf ojxnonqn` Mngnvufn cngnmafcn`k unf`u cn`sjo`igikf.
Af`en`kon` Ojxj`sf`kn` N`ngfufu U{is Cngnm Xj`sncafqn` N{nmXnkj
5

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