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Published by Navin Thapa Magar
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Published by: Navin Thapa Magar on Jun 02, 2014
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06/02/2014

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Contents
I Preliminaries 1
1 Introduction 2
1.1 What is a mole? 31.2 The thermodynamic limit 41.3 The ideal gas 61.4 Combinatorial problems 71.5 Plan of the book 9Exercises 12
2 Heat 13
2.1 A denition of heat 132.2 Heat capacity 14Exercises 17
3 Probability 18
3.1 Discrete probability distributions 193.2 Continuous probability distributions 203.3 Linear transformation 213.4 Variance 223.5 Linear transformation and the variance 233.6 Independent variables 24Further reading 27Exercises 27
4 Temperature and the Boltzmann factor 30
4.1 Thermal equilibrium 304.2 Thermometers 314.3 The microstates and macrostates 334.4 A statistical denition of temperature 344.5 Ensembles 364.6 Canonical ensemble 364.7 Applications of the Boltzmann distribution 40Further reading 44Exercises 44
II Kinetic theory of gases 45
5 The MaxwellBoltzmann distribution 46
 
xii
 Contents 
5.1 The velocity distribution 465.2 The speed distribution 475.2.1
 
v
 and
 
v
2
 485.2.2 The mean kinetic energy of a gas molecule 485.2.3 The maximum of 
 
(
v
) 495.3 Experimental justication 49Exercises 52
6 Pressure 54
6.1 Molecular distributions 556.1.1 Solid angles 556.1.2 The number of molecules travelling in a certaindirection at a certain speed 556.1.3 The number of molecules hitting a wall 566.2 The ideal gas law 566.3 Daltons law 58Exercises 59
7 Molecular eusion 62
7.1 Flux 627.2 Eusion 64Exercises 67
8 The mean free path and collisions 68
8.1 The mean collision time 688.2 The collision cross-section 698.3 The mean free path 71Exercises 72
III Transport and thermal diusion 73
9 Transport properties in gases 74
9.1 Viscosity 749.2 Thermal conductivity 799.3 Diusion 819.4 More-detailed theory 84Further reading 86Exercises 87
10 The thermal diusion equation 88
10.1 Derivation of the thermal diusion equation 8810.2 The one-dimensional thermal diusion equation 8910.3 The steady state 9210.4 The thermal diusion equation for a sphere 9210.5 Newtons law of cooling 9510.6 The Prandtl number 9710.7 Sources of heat 98Exercises 99
 
Contents 
 xiii
IV The rst law 103
11 Energy 104
11.1 Some denitions 10411.1.1 A system in thermal equilibrium 10411.1.2 Functions of state 10411.2 The rst law of thermodynamics 10611.3 Heat capacity 108Exercises 111
12 Isothermal and adiabatic processes 114
12.1 Reversibility 11412.2 Isothermal expansion of an ideal gas 11612.3 Adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas 11712.4 Adiabatic atmosphere 117Exercises 119
V The second law 121
13 Heat engines and the second law 122
13.1 The second law of thermodynamics 12213.2 The Carnot engine 12313.3 Carnots theorem 12613.4 Equivalence of Clausius and Kelvin statements 12713.5 Examples of heat engines 12713.6 Heat engines running backwards 12913.7 Clausiustheorem 130Further reading 133Exercises 133
14 Entropy 136
14.1 Denition of entropy 13614.2 Irreversible change 13614.3 The rst law revisited 13814.4 The Joule expansion 14014.5 The statistical basis for entropy 14214.6 The entropy of mixing 14314.7 Maxwells demon 14514.8 Entropy and probability 146Exercises 149
15 Information theory 153
15.1 Information and Shannon entropy 15315.2 Information and thermodynamics 15515.3 Data compression 15615.4 Quantum information 158Further reading 161Exercises 161

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