The ADI instructional model
The ADI instructional model consists o the ollowing steps:
identication o a task
that creates a need or studentsto make sense o a phenomenon or solve a problem;
generation and analysis o data
by small groups o stu-dents using a method o their own design;
production o a tentative argument
by each group thatarticulates and justies an explanation in a medium thatcan be shared with others;
in which each group shares its ar-gument and then critiques and renes its explanations;
written by individual students thatexplains the goal o the work and the method used, andprovides a well-reasoned argument;
double-blind peer review
o these reports to ensure qual-ity and generate high-quality eedback or the individualauthors;
revision o the report
based on the resultso the peer review; and
explicit and refective discussion
about the inquiry.To illustrate how the ADI instructional model works,we describe an ADI lesson developed or a 10th-gradechemistry class. This example lesson was designed tohelp students understand the nature o chemical reactions(NRC 1996; Content Standard C, grades 9–12) and developthe abilities needed to do scientic inquiry (NRC 1996;Content Standard A, grades 9–12). The lesson also givesstudents an opportunity to improve their writing andverbal communication skills, their understanding o thewriting process, and their ability to interpret evidence andreason in a scientic manner. In the ollowing sections,we describe the purpose o each ADI step, the nature o classroom activity during each step, and how to supportstudents as they work.
Identification of the task
For this rst ADI step, teachers initiate the learning se-quence and introduce the major topic to be studied. Theprimary purpose o this step is to capture students’ atten-tion, establish connections between past and present learn-ing experiences, and highlight upcoming activities. At theend o this stage, students should be mentally engaged inthe topic and should begin to think about how it relates totheir previous class experiences.We recommend using a handout that includes a brie introduction and a researchable question to answer, aproblem to solve, or a task to complete. This handout can alsoinclude other important inormation that students can useduring the second step o the instructional model (e.g., a listo materials that can be used in the lab or saety guidelines).Figure 1 includes the introduction and the problem we gavestudents at the beginning o the example lesson.
Generation and analysis of data
During this second step, students work in collaborativegroups to develop and implement a method to address theproblem. The intention is to provide students with an op-portunity to “interact directly with the material world usingthe tools, data-collection techniques, models, and theories o science” (NRC 2005, p. 3). This type o practical work canbe challenging or students, so it helps i teachers providethem with a list o materials that can be used during theinvestigation and some hints to help get them started. Weusually include this inormation in the handout that we sup-ply to students at the beginning o the investigation underthe headings “Materials Available” and “Getting Started.”In our chemistry lab, or example, we told students theycould use materials such as well plates, pH paper, test tubes, alist o solubility rules, and a polyatomic ion chart during theirinvestigation. We also suggested that students rst gather dataabout what happens when the reactants are mixed and then usethe solubility rules and list o polyatomic ions to determine theproducts o the our reactions. We cautioned students aboutsaety concerns, especially when handling acids.Teachers can also require students to write out aninvestigation proposal that describes the method theyintend to use, especially i the investigation is complex or
Information provided at the beginningof the example lesson.
You have already seen many chemicalreactions. You have also learned how to recognizethe evidence o a chemical reaction. These include acolor change, the ormation o a solid, production o bubbles, or a change in pH or temperature. Chemistsdescribe these reactions using chemical ormulas. Youhave learned how to read chemical ormulas and howto balance them. But i we mix two or more productstogether, how can we fgure out what products areormed? In this investigation, you will need to fgureout how to identiy the products that are ormed dur-ing a chemical reaction.
Determine the balanced chemical or-mula or the ollowing reactions:HCl (aq) + Zn (s)
HCl (aq) + NaHCO
Al (s) + H
(aq) + AgNO