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TEMA 7 DINÁMICAS Y TÉCNICAS DE GRUPO

TEMA 7 DINÁMICAS Y TÉCNICAS DE GRUPO

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Published by andopor
dinámicas y técnicas de grupos
dinámicas y técnicas de grupos

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Published by: andopor on Nov 20, 2009
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L a c o m u n ic a c i\u00f3 n s e h a c o n te m p la d o e n u n a u n id a d
a n t e r i o r c o m o u n a t \u00e9 c n i c a , p e r o m \u00e1 s a l l \u00e1 d e l a t \u00e9 c n i c a y
p o r e n c im a d e e lla e s t\u00e1 n la s p e rs o n a s ,l o s v e rd a d e ro s
a c to re sd e l m u n d o q u e s e e n c u e n tra ny c o m u n ic a n a
tra v \u00e9 sd e l d i\u00e1 lo g o ,la to le ra n c ia y la a c e p ta c i\u00f3 n .
E n e s tes e n tid o ,la s d in \u00e1 m ic a sd e g ru p o s o n u n a fo rm a
d e e x p re s i\u00f3 nd e la riq u e z a in a g o ta b led e la s re la c io n e s

h u m a n a s , d i s e \u00f1 a d a sp o r e l s e r h u m a n o p a r a e l s e r h u - m a n o ; p o r y p a ra a b rir u n s in f\u00edn d e s e n d a sp o r la s q u e c a m in a r ju n to s , d e s c u b r ie n d oy v iv e n c ia n d o e m o c io - n e s n u e v a s ,o c u lta s o d o r m id a s ;a b r ie n d o s e n tim ie n to s p o s itiv o s d e a u toe s tim a ,d e to le ra n c ia y re s p e to h a c ia lo s o tro s .

"

E n u n id a d e s a n te rio re s s e h a h e c h o re fe re n c ia a la s t\u00e9 c - n ic a s d e c o m u n ic a c i\u00f3 n v e r b a l y n o v e r b a l y a la im p o r - ta n c ia d e la s h a b ilid a d e s s o c ia le s e n la c o m u n ic a c i\u00f3 n . S i d e u n a o b ra te a tra l s e tra ta s e , s e p o d r\u00eda d e c ir q u e s e h a h a b la d o d e te o r\u00eda s , d e a u to re s , y d e g u io n e s . E n c a m - b io , e n e s ta u n id a d s e v a a tra ta r d e la p a rte m \u00e1 s im - p o rta n te d e la o b ra e s c \u00e9 n ic a :lo s a c to re s o la s p e rs o n a s q u e s e c o m u n ic a n , q u e in te ra c t\u00fa a n y q u e s e b e n e fic ia n m u tu a m e n te d e s u re la c i\u00f3 n a tra v \u00e9 s d e la s d in \u00e1 m ic a s d e

g ru p o .

C o n la s d in \u00e1 m ic a s d e g r u p o ta m b i\u00e9 n s e p u e d e lo g r a r q u e l a s c r e e n c i a se r r \u00f3 n e a s y l o s p r e j u i c i o s h a c i a l o s d e - m \u00e1ssedesvanezcan

c o m o s i h u b ie r a n s id o ilu s io n e so
e s p e jis m o s ,
p r o d u c to d e l m ie d o a lo d e s c o n o c id o .

E l v o c a b lo \u00ab d in \u00e1 m ic a \u00bb p r o v ie n e d e u n a p a la b r a g r ie g a q u e s ig n ific a fu e rz a . D in \u00e1 m ic a d e g ru p o s s e v a a re fe - rir, p o r lo ta n to , a l e s tu d io d e la s fu e rz a s q u e a c t\u00fa a n e n e l in te rio r d e u n g ru p o . C o n e s te t\u00e9 rm in o

ta m b i\u00e9 n s e

p u e d e h a c e r re fe re n c ia a l c o n ju n to d e m \u00e9 to d o sy t\u00e9 c n ic a s g r u p a le s q u e s e a p lic a n a in d iv id u o s y a o r g a n iz a c io n e s s o c ia le s .

E l c a r\u00e1 c te r p r\u00e1 c tic o y v iv e n c ia l d e la s
d in \u00e1 m ic a s (le g ru p o

L o s c o n o c im ie n to ste \u00f3 ric o s s o n e n e fe c to ,la b a s e d e c ie rto tip o d e a p re n d iz a je sq u e p a rtic ip a n e n e l c a m b io d e c r e e n c i a sy a c t i t u d e s , y p e r m i t e n q u e l a s p e r s o n a s e n tie n d a n y m a n e je n m e jo r s u r e a lid a d .P o r e je m p lo s i s e to m a n la s u n id a d e sd id \u00e1 c tic a sd e e s telib ro re s p e c to

a c o m u n ic a c i\u00f3 n , h a b ilid a d e s s o c ia le so r e s o lu c i\u00f3 n d e c o n -

f l i c t o s , s e p u e d e c o n s i d e r a r q u e t o d a s e l l a s h a n a u m e n - ta d o u n a s e rie d e c o n o c im ie n to s ,s in e m b a rg o ,e l c a m - b io d e c o n d u c tan o s e lo g r a s \u00f3 lo c o n e l c o n o c im ie n to . D e l m is m o m o d o q u e n o s e p u e d e e n s e \u00f1 a rn in g u n a h a b ilid a d s im p le m e n tete o r iz a n d o s o b r e e lla .

D in \u00e1 m ic a sd e g r u p o y r e la c io n e s h u m a n a s

L a e ra a c tu a l, ta n m e t\u00e1 lic a c o m o c ie n t\u00edfic a , e s t\u00e1 lle n a d e ta b \u00fa e s y d e rin c o n e s h u m a n o s a \u00fa n p o r e x p lo ra r y c o m - p a rtir. L o s m e c a n is m o s d e fe n s iv o sq u e a c tiv a n la s p e rs o - n a s fre n te a lo s d e m \u00e1 s ,n o s ie m p re le s p e rm ite n lib e ra rs e d e l a s m \u00e1 s c a r a s s o c i a l e s , l o s p r o t o c o l o s , l a c o m u n i c a c i \u00f3 n in te r e s a d a , e tc . P o r e llo la s d in \u00e1 m ic a s d e g r u p o v a n a p e rm itir lle g a r a re la c io n e s h u m a n a s m \u00e1 s p ro fu n d a s , y v a n a p o s ib ilita r e l d e s a r r o llo d e a c titu d e s p e r s o n a le s y h a c ia lo s d e m \u00e1 s a tr a v \u00e9 s d e la lib r e e x p r e s i\u00f3 n .

E n la s d in \u00e1 m ic a s d e g r u p o , la s r e s p u e s ta ss \u00f3 lo tie n e n

lu g a r a tra v \u00e9 sd e la e x p e rie n c iad e l o tro y d e la v iv e n c ia g ru p a l.E n e s tes e n tid o s e p u e d e n c o n s id e ra r c o m o u n a re s p u e s ta s o c ia l a la n e c e s id a dd e a d q u ir ir c o n o c im ie n to s y h a b ilid a d e s a tra v \u00e9 s d e la p r\u00e1 c tic a y la p a rtic i- p a c i\u00f3 n e n e l g ru p o .

L a s d in \u00e1 m ic a s d e g r u p o p u e s ,
p re te n d e n in te g ra r la te o r\u00eda m e -

d ia n te la e x p e r ie n c iay la p r \u00e1 c tic a , e l a p r e n d i z a j e i n d i v i d u a l y g r u p a l d e m a n e rap a rtic ip a tiv a ,a s \u00edc o m o e l d e s a r r o llo d e la s h a b ilid a d e s c o g n itiv a s y a fe c tiv a s .P o r e llo a la s d in \u00e1 m ic a s d e g r u p o ta m b i\u00e9 n s ~ le s lla m a v iv e n c ia le s y a q u e h a c e n v iv ir o s e n tir la s s itu a c io - n e s c o m o s i fu e ra n re a le s .

L a sd in \u00e1 m ic a s
d e g r u p ofa c ilita nla s
r e la c io n e s
hum anas
y p o te n c ia nl a s
a c titu d e sc o o p e r~ tiv a s
a t r a v \u00e9 s d e l a
p a r tic ip a c i\u00f3 n .
E l c a r \u00e1 c te r l\u00fa d ic o d e la s d in \u00e1 m ic a s d e g r u p o s

L a s d in \u00e1 m ic a sd e g ru p o s e p re s e n ta nb a jo la fo rm a d e ju e g o s o e je r c ic io sq u e d a n u n v a lo r e s p e c \u00edfic od e d i- v e rs i\u00f3 n , e s tim u la n d o la c re a tiv id a d y e l a flo ra m ie n to d e e m o c io n e s .

E s te c a r\u00e1 c te r l\u00fa d ic o in te g ra s e is c o m p o n e n te s b \u00e1 s ic o s e n e l s e r h u m a n o : f\u00eds ic o , a fe c tiv o , c o g n itiv o , s o c ia l, e s t\u00e9 - tic o y e s p ir itu a l. S in e m b a r g o e s n e c e s a r io h a c e r h in c a - p i\u00e9 e n q u e la s d in \u00e1 m ic a s n o s o n u n ju e g o , a u n q u e e n o c a s io n e s te n g a n d ic h a e s tru c tu ra . T ie n e n u n a fin a li- d a d , e s d e c ir , u n o s o b je tiv o s q u e v a n m \u00e1 s a ll\u00e1 d e lo s r e - s u lta d o s q u e s e p o d r \u00eda n c o n s e g u ir c o n u n s im p le ju e g o , y p o r ta n to n o h a n d e u tiliz a rs e p a ra e n tre te n e r o a m e - n iz a r.

~
- - ~
-
,- - -
-
v
d e lle g a r a s u s o lu c i\u00f3 n . S e o b s e r v a r o n
c o m o la s d e c o n c r e c i\u00f3 n y
D e s d e e n t o n c e s l a s d i n \u00e1 m i c a s d e g r u p o s h a n
C o n v ie n er e m a r c a rq u e la s d in \u00e1 m ic a sn u n c a s o n u n fin
e n s \u00ed m is m a s ,s in o q u e s o n u n m e d io p a r a c o n s e g u ir
d e te r m in a d o s o b je tiv o s . P o r e je m p lo , u n
o b je tiv o

p u e d e s e r e l d e u tiliz a r u n a d in \u00e1 m ic a d e p r e s e n ta c i\u00f3 n para que un grupo que acabede crearseconozcael n o m b r e d e s u s p a r t i c i p a n t e s , s e r o m p a e l h i e l o y e l t e - m o r in ic ia l, s e e s ta b le z c au n c o n ta c to a g r a d a b le ,e tc . E s t a d i n \u00e1 m i c a s e p u e d e p r e s e n t a r d e f o r m a d i v e r t i d a y a m e n a , y e n e f e c t o p u e d e r e s u l t a r t a n d i v e r t i d a c o m o u n ju e g o , s in e m b a r g o s e b a s a e n p r in c ip io s q u e v a n m \u00e1 s a ll\u00e1 d e l d iv e r tir , s in q u e e s to \u00fa ltim o q u e d e e x - c lu id o .

e n e l n iv e l
a fe c tiv o ,
y d e n tro
d e \u00e9 s ta s e n lo s a u to re s
m \u00e1s
re p re s e n ta tiv o s :
K u rt
L e w in
y Jacob L. M oreno.
K u rtL e w iny lo s T a lle re sd e
s e n s ib iliz a c i\u00f3 n

K u rt L e w in (1 8 9 0 -1 9 4 7 ) e s c o n s id e ra d o e l fu n d a d o r d e la p s ic o lo g \u00eda s o c ia l m o d e r n a . In ic i\u00f3 e l u s o d e la te o r \u00eda y la p u e s ta e n p r\u00e1 c tic a , m e d ia n te la e x p e rim e n ta c i\u00f3 n , p a ra p r o b a r la h ip \u00f3 te s is . S e le c o n o c e p o r s u t\u00e9 r m in o \u00ab e s p a c io v ita l\u00bb y s u s tra b a jo s s o b re \u00ab d in \u00e1 m ic a d e g ru p o s \u00bb . L e w in e s ta b le c i\u00f3 e l c e n tr o d e in v e s tig a c i\u00f3 n e n d in \u00e1 m ic a d e l g ru p o e n e l In s titu to d e la T e c n o lo g \u00eda d e M a s s a c h u s e tts ,

y

fu e e l fu n d a d o r d e la p rim e ra a c tiv id a d c o n s id e ra d a c o m o d in \u00e1 m ic a d e g ru p o s , c re a n d o e n 1 9 4 5 e n la U n iv e r- s id a d d e H a rv a rd e l R e s e a rc hG e n te ro f G ro u p sD y n a m ic s .

P a ra lle v a r a c a b o la s d in \u00e1 m ic a sd e g ru p o s e r\u00e1 n e c e s a -
rio d is p o n e r d e u n a s t\u00e9 c n ic a s .E n e s te s e n tid o s e p u e -
d e n c o n s id e r a rla s t\u00e9 c n ic a s d e g r u p o c o m o m e d io so
h e rra m ie n ta s
q u e s irv e n p a ra o rg a n iz a r la a c tiv id a d
o di-
n \u00e1 m ic a d e g r u p o ; o d ic h o
d e o tra m a n e ra , c o m o e l c o n -
ju n to
d e p ro c e d im ie n to s
q u e s e u tiliz a n
p a ra lo g ra r u n o s
re s u lta d o s e n lo s p ro c e s o s g ru p a le s .
\u00bf P a r a q u \u00e9 u tiliz a u n t\u00e9 c n ic o
s u s h e rra m ie n ta s ?

C o m o e s n a tu ra l c u a lq u ie rt\u00e9 c n ic o d e c u a lq u ie rp ro fe - s i \u00f3 n p u e d e c o n t e s t a r a e s t a p r e g u n t a d i c i e n d o q u e d e - p e n d e r\u00e1 d e l p a ra q u \u00e9 ,e s d e c ir, e n fu n c i\u00f3 n d e l o b je tiv o q u e te n g a u tiliz a r\u00e1 u n a s u o tra s h e rra m ie n ta s .

D e la m is m a m a n e r a la s d in \u00e1 m ic a sta m b i\u00e9 n s e h a n d e e le g ir e n fu n c i\u00f3 n d e lo s o b je tiv o s q u e s e p e r s ig a n ,y e n c a d a o c a s i\u00f3 n h a b r\u00e1 q u e u tiliz a r, a d a p ta ro re c re a rs u s t\u00e9 c n ic a s o h e rra m ie n ta s s e g \u00fa n la s c a ra c te r\u00eds tic a sd e l g ru p o , p e ro s ie m p ree n fu n c i\u00f3 n d e u n o b je tiv o in ic ia l.

K u r tle w in .
U n m artillo

n o s e rv ir\u00e1 p a ra a to rn illa r u n to rn illo , s in e m b a rg o s e r\u00e1 d e m u c h a u tilid a d p a ra c la v a r u n c la v o . D e l m is m o m o d o s e p u e d e d e c ir q u e n in g u n a t\u00e9 c n ic a e s v \u00e1 lid a p a r a to d a s la s c ir c u n s ta n c ia s , p o r e llo e s d e v i- ta l im p o r ta n c ia q u e s e s e p a e le g ir la t\u00e9 c n ic a m \u00e1 s a d e - cuada para cada caso.

U n a d e la s t\u00e9 c n ic a s p a ra re d u c ir lo s p ro b le m a s in te r- p e r s o n a le s s o n lo s T a lle r e s d e s e n s ib iliz a c i\u00f3 n ( lla m a d o s ta m b i\u00e9 n G ru p o s T o L a b o ra to rio s d e c o n d u c ta ). S u o ri- g e n s e re m o n ta a l v e ra n o d e 1 9 4 6 c u a n d o L e w in y s u e q u ip o d ir ig ie r o n u n ta lle r p a r a m e jo r a r la s r e la c io n e s in te rra c ia le s e n N e w B rita in , C o n n e c tic u t.

H a s ta fin a le s d e lo s a \u00f1 o s 2 0 lo s p r o b le m a s

e n lo s g ru p o s s e tra ta b a n c o n e l m \u00e9 to d o -- --- -, - q u e e l B u s in e s sS c h o o ld e H a rv a rd h a b \u00eda p u e s to m o d a . D ic h a t\u00e9 c n ic a c o n s is t\u00edae n e l ;

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