Editor: International Resource Panel, Working Group on the Global Metal FlowsLead author: Ester van der Voet, University of Leiden, Netherlands; Chapter editors: Ester van der Voet, Leiden University, Netherlands; Reijo Salminen,Geological Survey Finland, Finland; Matthew Eckelman, North Eastern University, Boston, USA; Gavin Mudd, Monash University, Australia; Terry Norgate, CSIRO Minerals Down Under Flagship, Australia; Roland Hischier, EMPA, Switzerland; Contributing authors: Job Spij-ker, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Netherlands; Martina Vijver, Leiden University, Netherlands; Olle Selinus, Linneaus University, Sweden; Leo Posthuma, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Netherlands; Dick de Zwart, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Netherlands; Dik van de Meent, Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands; Markus Reuter, Outotec Oyj, Espoo, Finland; Ladji Tikana, German Copper Development Association, Germany; Sonia Valdivia, UNEP, France; Patrick Wäger, EMPA, Swit-zerland; Michael Hauschild, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; Arjan de Koning, Leiden University, Netherlands. The following people have contributed by reviewing draft versions of the report and providing valuable information and comments (Alphabeti-cal): John Atherton, International Council on Mining and Metals; Caroline Braibant, European Precious Metals Federation; Clare Broadbent,
World Steel Association; Peter Campbell, Université du Québec, Institut National de la Recherche Scientiﬁque, Canada; Sandra Carey, Interna-
tional Molybdenum Association; Grant Darrie, International Chromium Development Association; Katrien Delbeke, European Copper Institute; Johannes Drielsma, Euromines; Alain Dubreuil, Natural Resources Canada, Canada; Maria Amelia Enriquez, Federal University of Pará State, Brazil; Kevin Farley, Manhattan College, USA; Thomas Graedel, Yale University, USA; Edgar Hertwich, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway, Paola Kistler, Rio Tinto, Switzerland; Christian Leroy, European Aluminium Association; Eirik Nordheim, European Alu-minium Association; Jerome Nriagu, University of Michigan, USA, Jozef M. Pacyna, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway; Claudia Peña, Chilean Research Centre for Mining and Metallurgy, Chile; Patrick van Sprang, Arche Consulting Brussels, Belgium; Sangwon Suh, University of California, USA; Frans Vollenbroek, European Commission, Belgium; Pia Voutilainen, Scandinavian Copper Development Association, Finland and (further) representatives of the following organisations: Codelco, Euromines, European Aluminium Association, European Precious Metals Federation, International Chromium Development Association, International Copper Association, International Council on Mining and Metals, International Molybdenum Association, International Zinc Association, Rio Tinto, and World Steel Association.
The report went through several rounds of peer-review coordinated in an efﬁcient and constructive way by Jacqueline Aloisi de Larderel together
with the International Resource Panel Secretariat. Valuable comments were received from several anonymous reviewers in this process. The prepa-
ration of this report also beneﬁted from discussions with many colleagues at various meetings.
Special thanks go to Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker and Ashok Khosla as Co-Chairs of the International Resource Panel for their continuing support and encouragement, as well as to the members of the International Resource Panel and its Steering Committee for their dedication and commit-ment and additional helpful comments.
Special thanks also go to Melanie Studer (Leiden University, Netherlands) for her support during the ﬁnal stages of the document preparation.
Shaoyi Li, Tomas Marques and Philip Strothmann, UNEP, provided valuable input and comments; the International Resource Panel’s Secretariat
coordinated the preparation of this report. Sibylle Schmidtchen and the team from 3f design were instrumental in creating and editing the ﬁgures
and graphics. The main responsibility for errors remains with the authors.
UNEP promotes environ-mentally sound practices globally and in its own activities. Please print this publication – when printing is necessary – on recycling paper or FSC certiﬁed paper. Our distri-bution policy aims to reduce UNEP’s carbon footprint.
The report should be referenced as follows: UNEP (2013) Environmental Risks and Challenges of Anthropogenic Metals Flows and Cycles, A Report of the Working Group on the Global Metal Flows to the International Resource Panel. van der Voet, E.; Salminen, R.; Eckelman, M.; Mudd, G.; Norgate, T.; Hischier, R.
Copyright © United Nations Environment Programme, 2013
This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or nonproﬁt purposes without special permission from
the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the source is made. UNEP would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses this publication as a source.No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any other commercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission in writing from the United Nations Environment Programme.Design/layout: 3f design, cover concept, UNEP.Photos: iStockphoto.com: background title/page 14 ©
title 1 © oneclearvision, title 2 © Marco Hegner, title 3 © Milos Peric, title 4
© DNY 59,
page 4 ©
page 24 ©
page 30 ©
page 46 ©
page 46 ©
page 56 ©
page 72 ©
page 74 ©
page 94 ©
page 116 ©
Bart van den Dikkenberg,
page 127 ©
page 128 ©
page 144 ©
page 155 ©
page 162 ©
page 190 ©
page 207 ©
page 220 ©
Judy Kennamer. Others: see captions.
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations Environment Programme concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Moreover, the views expressed do not necessarily represent the decision or the stated policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, nor does citing of trade names or commercial processes constitute endorsement.
ISBN: 978-92-807-3266-5Job Number: DTI/1534/PA