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A. Karatsuba - The Riemann Zeta-Function.pdf

A. Karatsuba - The Riemann Zeta-Function.pdf

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1:J
2:;)
1,0
fj
I
The Riemann eta Function
I
by A.
A
Karatsuba
S
M. Voronin
Translated from the Russian
by
Neal Koblitz
Walter de Gruyter .
Berlin
New York 1992
 
Authors
A. A.
Karatsuba
S.
M.
Voronin Department
of
Analytic Number Theory Steklov Mathematical Institute Vavilova
42
117966 Moscow GSP-1, Russia
Translator
Neal Koblitz Department
of
Mathematics University
of
Washington Seattle,
WA
98
195
USA
99
Mathematics Subject Classification:
11-02;
11M06,11M26,
llN05,
Ll5
@
Printed on acid-free paper which falls within the guidelines
of
the ANSI to ensure permanence and durability.
Library
of
Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Karatsuba,
A.
A.
(Anatolii Alekseevich)
1937-
The Riemann zeta-function /
by
A.
A.
Karatsuba,
S.
M.
Voronin ; translated from the Russian
by
Neal Koblitz. p. cm. -(De Gruyter expositions in mathematics. ISSN 0938-6572 ;
5
Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 3-11-013170-6
cloth;
acid-free)
1.
Functions, Zeta.
I.
Voronin, Sergei MikhaHovich. II. Title. III. Series. QA246.V73 1992 512'.73
-dc20
92-22817
Die Deutsche Bibliothek
-
Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Karacuba, Anatolij A.:
The Riemann zeta-function /
by
A.
A.
Karatsuba Voronin. Trans . from the Russ.
by
Neal Koblitz. New
York:
de Gruyter, 1992 (De Gruyter expositions in mathematics ;
5
ISBN 3-11-013170-6 NE: Voronin, Sergej M.:;
GT
CIP ;
S.M. Berlin;
©
Copyright 1992 by Walter de Gruyter
&
Co., D-1000 Berlin
30.
All rights reserved, .including those
of
translation into foreign languages. No part
of
this book may
~ reproduce~
m any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recordmg,
or
any mformation storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in Germany. Disk Conversion: D.
L.
Lewis, Berlin. Printing: Gerike GmbH, Berlin. Binding: Liideritz
&
Bauer GmbH, Berlin. Cover design: Thomas Bonnie, Hamburg.
........
f
I
I
Preface
This monograph
is
devoted
to
a systematic exposition
of
the theory
of
the Riemann zeta-function. This type
of
project is not new. One need only recall Titchmarsh's
The Theory
of
he Riemann Zeta-Function
first published in 1951 and then reissued by Oxford University Press in 1986. Titchmarsh's book has not lost its special importance,
as
a veritable encyclopedia
of
the zeta-function. At the same time, there have been certain areas where the theory
of
the Riemann zeta-function has made significant progress in recent years. In addition, certain aspects
of
the theory have been extended to a broader class
of
functions.
t
is not the purpose
of
the authors to cover all
of
the areas
of
research where progress has been made. A natural criterion for selection was as much as possible to avoid duplication and rewriting
of
material that is already available. Our emphasis is on results which have not yet appeared in monograph form. Nevertheless, we hope that this book has a broad enough sweep so as to convey
an
impression
of
the current state
of
research on the Riemann zeta-function.
We
are pleased to express our gratitude to N.
1
Voronina for her invaluable assistance in preparing the manuscript.
We
are thankful to Prof.
N.
Koblitz for his excellent translation
of
our book into English. Moscow, April 1992
A.A. Karatsuba S.M. Voronin
 
Notation
As a rule, standard mathematical notation will be used without comment.
C,
CI
C2,
,
C, C denote positive constants, which may have different val-ues in different places.
E,
EI
denote arbitrarily small positive numbers.
p,
Po
PI,
denote prime numbers.
n m
I,
r
denote either integers or natural numbers, depending on the context. log
x
=
In
x
denotes the natural logarithm
of
x.
Given a real number
a,
we set
Iiall
=
min {a}, 1 -
{a}),
where
{a}
=
a
-
[a]
is the fractional part
of
a.
The notation
A
«
B
means that there exists
C
>
0 such that I
A
I
s
C
B .
The notation
A
«k,N,y
B
means that
A
«
B
holds for fixed
k
N
y.
For real and positive functions
f
and
p
the notation
f
p
means that there exist positive
CI
and
C2
such that
cd
s
p
s
c2f.
In any discussion
of
t;
-
and L-functions we set
S
=
J
t.
If
s has subscripts, then
J
and
t
will have the same subscripts. The notation
ai,
,
an
l,
,
b
n 
mod
1
means that
aj
-b
is a rational integer for all
j
=
1,
...
n.
Theorems, lemmas, corollaries and formulas are referred
to
by chapter, section and subsection.
If
the reference is within the same chapter or section), then the corresponding number is deleted. Roman numerals are used for chapters, and Arabic numerals for sections and subsections. Some preliminary results are gathered together in the Appendix, which is denoted Chapter A when these results are cited.
Introduction
The method
of
generating functions goes back more than two centuries
to
the work
of
Euler. Its early applications were connected with problems in number theory and combinatorial analysis. The range
of
applications
of
generating functions later broadened
to
include algebra, topology, and -in a very significant way -probability theory. But it is in number theory, the first field
to
which the method was applied, that one finds some of its most brilliant achievements. The point of departure for the method
of
generating functions is the construction of functions which correspond
to
the objects under consideration. This
is
done in such a way that the properties
of
these objects are reflected in relations between the functions. Since one can apply the full arsenal of mathematical analysis to the functions, this often leads to valuable results in the study
of
the original problem. In this book the basic object
of
study is the Riemann zeta-function, although
to
some extent we touch upon the properties of Dirichlet and Hecke L-functions
as
well. Many properties of the integers are reflected in the analytic properties
of
the zeta-function. For example, the Euler product representation for the zeta-function is a reflection
of
the unique factorization
of
integers into primes. Other connections between properties
of
the integers and analytic properties
of
the zeta-function are not so immediately obvious, although in many cases a careful analysis makes the relationship clear.
We
now give a brief summary
of
the contents
of
the book. Chapter I contains an exposition of the basic facts
of
the theory
of
the Riemann
t;
-function and Dirichlet L-series, regarded
as
functions
of
a complex variable. The presentation is fairly standard. In Chapter II the Riemann zeta-function is regarded
as
the generating function
of
a series
of
arithmetic functions. From this point
of
view we prove the most commonly used identities.
We
pay special attention
to
the connection of the
t;-
function with the distribution of prime numbers, i.e., with the function
n x)
the number
of
primes not exceeding
x).
In particular, we derive asymptotic laws for the distribution
of
primes among the natural numbers and in arithmetic progressions. In Chapter III we develop the machinery that is used
to
obtain the so-called approximate functional equations. These equations make it possible
to
approximate the Riemann zeta-function in the critical strip 0
<Re
s <
1
We
do not treat the corresponding formulas for Dirichlet L-functions, although they can easily be found by repeating the arguments used for the Riemann zeta-function.

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