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mca

mca

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Published by: kunzmilan8383 on Nov 20, 2009
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\documentstyle[bezier]{book}\begin{document}\def\emline#1#2#3#4#5#6{%\put(#1,#2){\special{em:moveto}}%\put(#4,#5){\special{em:lineto}}}\author{Milan Kunz} \title{Matrix Combinatorics and Algebra}\maketitle \pagenumbering{Roman} \setcounter{page}{5}\chapter*{Preface}Studying mathematics, you find that it has many branches andspecialties: (algebra, geometry, topology, differential andintegral calculus, combinatorics), and different theories: (numbertheory, group theory, set theory, graph theory, information theory,coding theory, special theories of equations, operators, etc.. Itseems that there is none unifying concept.But we know only one world, we live in, only one physics, onechemistry, one biology. There should be only one mathematics,too.The title of this book is "Matrix Combinatorics and Algebra".Combinatorics is an old branch of mathematics, and its essentialsconsidered to be elementary, since they are based on good examples.But it has its limitation: There exist too many identities and stillmore remain to be discovered. The mind is boggled by them as Riordan\cite{1} pointed out because there appears only disorder inabundance. Classical combinatorics contained many branches whichseparated later but which are essential for understanding it. Youwill find here themes from number and group theories aswell.Algebra is very abstract science, except for its one branch, linearalgebra. There are studied operations with vectors and matrices. Andon these notions the heart of the book is based.I think that I found a path into the strange world of combinatorics.It started long ago when I accidentally discovered that two famousentropy functions H$ = -\sum p_j \log p_j$, as defined by Boltzmann\cite{2} and Shannon \cite{3}, are two distinct functions derivedfrom two polynomial coefficients, contrary to generally acceptedviews and the negentropy principle.I had a feeling as Cadet Biegler \cite{4}. Remember his desperateejaculation: ``Jesusmarja, Herr Major, es stimmt nicht!''. Seniorofficers quietly listened the lecture about coding, but the givenexample did not make sense, because they had at hand another volumethan prescribed by instructions. The name of the book was "S\"undeder V\"ater". Similarly as \v Svejk, I think, that a book should beread from its first volume.It was almost impossible to publish my results, because they did notconform with accepted views. My first attempt was rejected fromreason that my explanation was ununderstable. Being angry, I wroteits essence for a~technical journal for youth, where it was acceptedas suitable lecture for their naive readers \cite{5}. Till now, I wasnot able to publish my result explicitly. The referees did not
 
accept my arguments. From many reasons. I was forced to continue myresearch, discover new relations which proved my conception. Thereare very elementary things about graph matrices which are notexplained in textbooks on their suitable place, it means at thebeginning. Thus I hope that I succeeded.If this book were written one hundred years ago, it could save onehuman life, if it were published fifty years ago, it could preventerroneous interpretation of the informationtheory.Mathematical equations and identities are like pieces of a puzzle.They are arranged in a traditional way into specialties which arestudied separately. If mathematicians were unable to realize thatboth entropy functions stem from an identity known paradoxically asthe Polya-Brillouin statistics which could be found in commonly usedtextbooks \cite{6}, then some basic obstacles must have prevent themto interpret their abstract definitions correctly.When I studied the entropy problem I knew that it was a combinatorialproblem because Boltzmann himself connected the function H with acombinatorial identity. Moreover, I correlated it intuitively withmatrices because: "I did not even know what a matrix is and how it ismultiplied," as Heisenberg \cite{7} before me. Usual explanations ofmatrices did not make any sense to me.My approach is elementary: A string of symbols (a word, a text)\begin{itemize} \item ``explanations of matrices did not make anysense''is considered as a string of consecutive vectors written in bold faceletters as vectors\item ``{\bf explanations of matrices did not make any sense}''\\ andvectors in the string are written using the formalism\item ${\bf j} = {\bf e}_j = (0, 0,...1_j,...0)$ \end{itemize}as a vector column in the matrix form. I named matrices having ineach row just one unit symbol "naive". The matrices, obtained bypermutations and by finding scalar products of naive matrices withunit vectors, are counted and results tabulated. The resulting tablesof combinatorial functions have the form of~matrices and matrixoperations as multiplication, transposition and inversion can beperformed on them. Applications of matrix operations were commonin~combinatorics as the Kronecker function $\delta_{ij}$, which is animplicit application of inverse matrices. Riordan has given manyexamples of their use. However, matrix technique was not usedsystematically and combinatorial identities were not connected withintrinsic properties of vector spaces.Sums and differences of two naive matrices are studied in the secondpart of the book. They are known as graphs. The block designs couldform the next step. They are exploited in advanced combinatorics.Blocks have matrix form and the numbers of distinguishable blocks aresearched for. Hall \cite{8} began his book by chapters surveyingclassical combinatorics before he treated block designs, but no
 
attempt was made to use an unified matrix technique to traditionalcombinatorics and explain combinatorial problems as counting naiveblocks.When I connected combinatorial problems with properties of countablevector spaces, I discovered another way into the Euclidean space. Ican clear up, at least I hope so, how this space is built. Some ofits basic properties are not explained in textbooks. Eithermathematicians do not consider them important, or they simply ignorethem. Of course, a possibility exists that they keep them as hermeticsecrets unexplained to uninitiated. In any case, the Euclidean spacehas very strange properties.This book is an elementary one. Only exceptionally results of highermathematics are introduced, and then without proofs. Nevertheless, Ido not think that it is an easy book. It shows how complicated theworld is, that everything is connected with everything. I try toexplain some parts of combinatorics and matrix algebra in anunconventional way. The purpose is not mathematical rigor orpractical applications but the achievement of intuitive understandingof vector space complexity. I prefer full induction to generatingfunctions and the main purpose of the book is to show that the worldhas not only three dimensions, we can move in. I must admit that Imyself have difficulties trying to visualize some elementary things.Some solutions I found only after very long periods of thinking, asif the right way were blocked by invisible obstacles.Before we start let us make a note about the number systems.Everybody knows the decimal one: $$0 = 10^{-\infty};\ 1 = 10^0;\ 10 =10^1;\ 100 = 10^2\;.$$Somebody knows the binary one:$$0 = 2^{-\infty};\ 1 = 1^1 = 2^0;\ 10 = 2^1; \ 11 = 3;\ 100 = 4 =2^2\;.$$But nobody, as it seems to me, studied the unitary number system:$$1 =1^1;\ 11 = 2 = 1^2;\ 111 = 3 = 1^3.$$The difference is that the system starts from the first power of 1,which is undistinguishable from its zero power$$1 = 1^{-1} = 1^0\;.$$Logarithm of 1 with the base of logarithm 1 is again 1, logarithm of111 with the base of logarithms 1 is 3.Mathematical operations in this system are simple:addition\begin{center} $111 + 11 = 11\ 111$ \end{center}subtraction\begin{center} $111 - 11 = 1$ \end{center}

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