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Dan Pink on Motivation

Dan Pink on Motivation

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Published by dougevansishere4432
A TEDTalks esl teaching document for intermediate to advanced students under the Creative Commons license. See http://esltedtalks.blogspot.com/ for more information and lessons.
A TEDTalks esl teaching document for intermediate to advanced students under the Creative Commons license. See http://esltedtalks.blogspot.com/ for more information and lessons.

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Published by: dougevansishere4432 on Nov 20, 2009
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06/25/2013

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Dan Pink on Motivation
http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_pink_on_motivation.html#
For more TEDTalks ESL lessons, please visit:http://esltedtalks.blogspot.com/
A. I need to make a confession at the (1 .) outset here. A little over 20 years agoI did something that I regret, something that I'm not particularly proud of, somethingthat, in many ways, I wish no one would ever know, but here I feel kind of (3 .) obligedto reveal. (Laughter) Late 1980s, in a moment of youthful (2 .) indiscretion , I went tolaw school. (Laughter)Circle the word that has the same meaning as the corresponding word in the passage.1. starthonestlypointfor luc2. earnestnesscarelessnessragepity 3. gratefulsadembarrassedstrangeB. Now, in America, law is a professional degree. You get your universitydegree. Then you go on to law school. And when I got to law school, I didn't do verywell. To put it (4 .) mildly , I didn't do very well. I, in fact, graduated in the part of mylaw school class that made the top 90 percent possible. (Laughter) Thank you. I never (5 .) practiced law a day in my life. I pretty much wasn't (6 .) allowed to. (Laughter)Circle the word that has the same meaning as the corresponding word in the passage.4. stronglyenthusiasticallytastefullyweakly5. worked withthought about consideredliked6. forbiddendecidedinterested inpermittedC. But today, against my better (7.)________________, against the advice of my own wife, I want to try to dust off some of those legal skills, what's left of thoselegal skills. I don't want to tell you a story. I want to make a (8.)_________________.I want to make a hard-headed, evidence-based, dare I say lawyerly case, for rethinking how we run our (9.)___________________.Find a word from the list that fits the empty spaces and write it in.data judgementshow businessescase
 
D. So, ladies and gentlemen of the jury, take a look at this. This is called thecandle problem. Some of you might have seen this before. It was (11.)____________ in 1945 by a psychologist named Karl Duncker. Karl Duncker created this experimentthat is used in a whole (10.)__________________ of experiments in behavioralscience. And here's how it works. Suppose I'm the experimenter. I bring you into aroom. I give you a candle, some thumbtacks and some matches. And I say to you,"Your job is to (12.)________________ the candle to the wall so the wax doesn't driponto the table." Now what would you do?Find a word from the list that fits the empty spaces and write it in.createdpretendvarietyruinedattachE. Now many people begin trying to thumbtack the candle to the wall.
 Doesn't work.
Somebody, some people, and I saw somebody kind of make the motion over here. Some people have a great idea where they light the match, melt the side of thecandle, try to adhere it to the wall. It's an awesome idea. Doesn't work. Andeventually, after five or 10 minutes, most people figure out the solution, which youcan see here. The key is to overcome what's called
 functional fixedness
. You look atthat box and you see it only as a receptacle for the tacks. But it can also have thisother function, as a platform for the candle. The candle problem.13. In the sentence, “Doesn’t work.” what is missing?14. How would you define
 functional fixedness
?15. What are the two solutions that don’t work and what is the solution thatdoes in this problem?F. Now I want to tell you about an experiment to use the candle problem, done by a scientist named Sam Glucksberg, who is now at Princeton University in the U.S.This shows the power of incentive. Here's what he did. He gathered his participantsand he said, "I'm going to time you. How quickly you can solve this problem?" Toone group he said, “I'm going to time you to establish norms, averages for how long ittypical takes someone to solve this sort of problem.”There are three mistakes in the paragraph above. Underline the mistakes andwrite the corrected sentences or sentence fragments in the spaces below.16.17.18.
 
G. To the second group he offering rewards. He said, "If you're in the top 25 percent of the fastest times you get five dollars. If you're the fastest of everyone we'vetesting here today you get 20 dollars." Now this is several year ago. Adjusted for inflation, it's a decent sum of money for a few minutes of work. It's a nice motivator.There are three mistakes in the paragraph above. Underline the mistakes andwrite the corrected sentences or sentence fragments in the spaces below.19.20.21.H. Question: How much faster did this group solve the problem? Answer: Ittook them, on average, three and a half minutes longer. Three and a half minuteslonger. Now this makes no sense right? I mean I'm an American. I believe in freemarkets. That's not how it's supposed to work. Right? (Laughter) If you want peopleto perform better, you reward them. Right? Bonuses, commissions, their own realityshow. Incentivize them. That's how business works. But that's not happening here.You've got an incentive designed to sharpen thinking and accelerate creativity. And itdoes just the opposite. It dulls thinking and blocks creativity.22. Why does Dan say the phrase, “three and a half minutes longer,” twice?23. What does
it 
refer to in the sentence, “It dulls thinking and blockscreativity?”24. What are five other incentives that you can think of?I. And what's interesting about this experiment is that it's not an aberration.This has been replicated over and over and over again, for nearly 40 years. Thesecontingent motivators, if you do this, then you get that, work in some circumstances.But for a lot of tasks, they actually either don't work or, often, they do harm. This isone of the most robust findings in social science. And also one of the most ignored.25. Which of the following most closely matches the meaning of, “It’s not anaberration?”a. This is normal.b. This is not normal.c. This is abnormal.d. This in peculiar.26. Which of the following means the opposite of “robust?”a. healthyb. strongc. weakd. understood27. Exactly what finding is being ignored by business?

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