D. So, ladies and gentlemen of the jury, take a look at this. This is called thecandle problem. Some of you might have seen this before. It was (11.)____________ in 1945 by a psychologist named Karl Duncker. Karl Duncker created this experimentthat is used in a whole (10.)__________________ of experiments in behavioralscience. And here's how it works. Suppose I'm the experimenter. I bring you into aroom. I give you a candle, some thumbtacks and some matches. And I say to you,"Your job is to (12.)________________ the candle to the wall so the wax doesn't driponto the table." Now what would you do?Find a word from the list that fits the empty spaces and write it in.createdpretendvarietyruinedattachE. Now many people begin trying to thumbtack the candle to the wall.
Somebody, some people, and I saw somebody kind of make the motion over here. Some people have a great idea where they light the match, melt the side of thecandle, try to adhere it to the wall. It's an awesome idea. Doesn't work. Andeventually, after five or 10 minutes, most people figure out the solution, which youcan see here. The key is to overcome what's called
. You look atthat box and you see it only as a receptacle for the tacks. But it can also have thisother function, as a platform for the candle. The candle problem.13. In the sentence, “Doesn’t work.” what is missing?14. How would you define
?15. What are the two solutions that don’t work and what is the solution thatdoes in this problem?F. Now I want to tell you about an experiment to use the candle problem, done by a scientist named Sam Glucksberg, who is now at Princeton University in the U.S.This shows the power of incentive. Here's what he did. He gathered his participantsand he said, "I'm going to time you. How quickly you can solve this problem?" Toone group he said, “I'm going to time you to establish norms, averages for how long ittypical takes someone to solve this sort of problem.”There are three mistakes in the paragraph above. Underline the mistakes andwrite the corrected sentences or sentence fragments in the spaces below.16.17.18.