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Assignment on Statistics for Management

Assignment on Statistics for Management

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Published by: diplococcous on Nov 20, 2009
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STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT
ASSIGNMENT ONSTATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENTBY RAHULGUPTA
Question 1: What do you mean by sample survey?What are the different sampling methods? Brieflydescribe them?Answer
Introduction:
survey sampling
describes the process of selecting a sample of elements from a target population in order to conduct a survey.Asurveymay refer to many different types or techniques of observation, but in thecontext of survey sampling it most often refers to a questionnaire used to measurethe characteristics and/or attitudes of people. The purpose of samplingis to reduce
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STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT
the cost and/or the amount of work that it would take to survey the entire target population. A survey that measures the entire target population is called acensus.
Probability Sampling:
In a probability sample (also called "scientific" or "random" sample) each member of the target population has a known and non-zero probability of inclusion in thesample. A survey based on a probability sample can in theory produce statisticalmeasurements of the target population that are:
unbiased, the expected value of the sample mean is equal to the populationmean E(
ȳ
)=μ, and
Have a measurable sampling error, which can be expressed as aconfidence interval, or margin of error . A probability based survey sample is created by constructing a list of the target population, called the sample frame, a randomized process for selecting units fromthe sample frame, called a selection procedure, and a method of contacting selectedunits to and enabling them complete the survey, called a data collection method or mode. For some target populations this process may be easy, for example, samplingthe employees of a company by using payroll list. However, in large, disorganized populations simply constructing a suitable sample frame is often a complex andexpensive task. Common methods of conducting a probability sample of thehousehold population in the United States are Area Probability Sampling, RandomDigit Dial telephone sampling, and more recently Address Based Sampling. Within probability sampling there are specialized techniques such as stratified sampling andcluster sampling that improve the precision or efficiency of the sampling processwithout altering the fundamental principles of probability sampling.
Bias in Probability Sampling:
Bias in surveys is undesirable, but often unavoidable. The major types of bias thatmay occur in the sampling process are:
 Non-response bias: When individuals or households selected in the surveysample cannot or will not complete the survey there is the potential for biasto result from this non-response. No response bias occurs when the observedvalue deviates from the population parameter due to differences betweenrespondents and no respondents.
Coverage bias: Coverage bias can occur when population members do notappear in the sample frame (under coverage). Coverage bias occurs when theobserved value deviates from the population parameter due to differences
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STATISTICS FOR MANAGEMENT
 between covered and non-covered units. Telephone surveys suffer from awell known source of coverage bias because they cannot include householdswithout telephones.
Selection Bias: Selection bias occurs when some units have a differing probability of selection that is unaccounted for by the researcher. For example, some households have multiple phone numbers making them morelikely to be selected in a telephone survey than households with only one phone number.
Non-Probability Sampling:
Many surveys are not based on a probability samples, but rather by finding asuitable collection of respondents to complete the survey. Some common examplesof non-probability sampling are:
Judgment Samples: A researcher decides which population members toinclude in the sample based on his or her judgment. The researcher may provide some alternative justification for the representativeness of thesample.
Snowball Samples: Often used when a target population is rare, members of the target population recruit other members of the population for the survey.
Quota Samples: The sample is designed to include a designated number of  people with certain specified characteristics. For example, 100 coffeedrinkers. This type of sampling is common in non-probability marketresearch surveys.
Convenience Samples: The sample is composed of whatever persons can bemost easily accessed to fill out the survey.In non-probability samples the relationship between the target population and thesurvey sample is immeasurable and potential bias is unknowable. Sophisticatedusers of non-probability survey samples tend to view the survey as an experimentalcondition, rather than a tool for population measurement, and examine the results for internally consistent relationships
Sampling Methods:
Random sampling
is the purest form of probability sampling. Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected. When there are very
RAHUL GUPTA, MBAHCS (1
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SEM), SUBJECT CODE-MB0024, SET-2Page
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