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Cement Industry

Cement Industry

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Published by: kommareddymanibhargavi on Nov 20, 2009
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10/22/2010

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Cement is a binding material used in building and engineering.It begins as a powder that when mixed with water creates aheavy paste that when allowed to dry forms a very sturdy, rock-like surface that will hold together structural elements such asbricks and stone. The cement industry involves the productionof cement powder and its marketing and sales as well as itsusage by cement masons in the construction industry. The typeof cement commonly sold and utilized in the cement industry isPortland cement.
Significance
1.According to the Portland Cement Association, the cement industry in the UnitedStates produces and ships $8.6 billion worth of cement each year. There are 118cement plants in the country, and the United States ranks third in cementproduction behind China and India. In terms of masonry, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that over 229,000 individuals are employed by laying cementand that the industry is expected to grow by 11% over the next two decades,employing an additional 26,000 new masons.
History 
2.Cement itself dates to ancient Greece and Rome where it was formed fromvolcanic ash and lime. John Smeaton is credited with a primitive form of Portlandcement that he created in 1756 for use in the construction of a lighthouse inEngland. In 1824, Cement in its modern form was patented by Joseph Aspdin.Aspidin named his invention "Portland Cement" as he believed that when it driedit resembled a type of limestone quarried in Portland, England, that was knownas Portland Stone. The commercial manufacture of cement began to bewidespread in1850 across Europe and the United States.
Features of Cement Production
3.
The cement industry is affected by the general rate of construction in the UnitedStates; however, it is not as greatly influenced by times of economic downturnbecause cement is utilized in all phases and types of construction, making italways in demand in some areas. Sales of cement are seasonal in nature acrossmuch of the country, with peak times being in the spring and summer when themajority of outdoor  construction takes places in the Midwest and Northeast portions of the United States. The cement industry is also considered to beregional in nature because it is quite expensive to haul powdered cement in thelarge quantities that are typically needed for building projects. This causescompanies utilizing cement to search out the closest source of cement possibleto reducetransportationcosts. Though there are only 118 cements plants in thecountry, there are several hundred cement suppliers who absorb the cost of transporting the cement to their facilities. It is then the responsibility of contractors to pay to have the cement hauled to their work site, either in their own
 
vehicles or by the supplier. When contractors search for a cement supplier,distance is considered as well as the actual price per ton of the cement itself, withan effort made to buy as close to their location as possible.
Features of Cement Masonry 
4.In addition to being involved with general construction, cement masons arewidely employed to work with concrete, which is formed with cement. Cementmasons are responsible for preparing work sites by building framework andplanning the best strategy for pouring the concrete. Masons then continue their work, mixing the concrete personally by combining cement with other rawmaterials or supervising the mixing completed by other laborers. They thenoversee the pouring of the concrete and work to shape and finish the concreteaccording to its intended use. Concrete is used in a variety of ways, includingfoundations, parking and walking surfaces, and building structures, and no matter what the purpose of the concrete, cement masons are responsible for thefinished product.
Issues
5.
A variety of issues are important to the cement industry. The most important of these fall into the category of environmental concerns. Cement manufacturersare responsible for meeting Federal clean air and water standards as well asinforming communities that surround their plants about any potential effects of the factory's presence to the environment. Cement manufacturers must also beconcerned with energy efficiency in their plants as well as the amount of greenhouse emissions they release into the atmosphere. Another interest andissue in the cement industry is the United States' commitment to improvedinfrastructure to stimulate the economy, which will place increased demandsupon cement production. Both cement manufacturers and masons must adhereto standards set by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
 
Fast rising Government Expenditure on Infrastructure sector in India has resulted a higher demand of cement inthe country. In the same direction, participation of larger companies in the sector has increased.For raising efficiency in the sector, the Planning Commission of India in the 10th plan has formed a 'WorkingGroup on Cement IndustryThere is a total number of 125 large cement plants and more than 300 small cement plants operating in Indiapresently.
Cement Industry
 
Total production
The cement industry comprises of 125large cement plants with an installedcapacity of 148.28 million tonnes andmore than 300 mini cement plants withan estimated capacity of 11.10 milliontonnes per annum.The Cement Corporation of India, whichis a Central Public Sector Undertaking,has 10 units. There are 10 large cementplants owned by various StateGovernments. The total installedcapacity in the country as a whole is159.38 million tonnes. Actual cementproduction in 2002-03 was 116.35million tonnes as against a production of 106.90 million tonnes in 2001-02,registering a growth rate of 8.84%.
Major players in cement productionare Ambuja cement, Aditya Cement,J K Cement and L & T cement.
 Apart from meeting the entire domesticdemand, the industry is also exportingcement and clinker. The export of KPMG Consultancy Pvt. Ltd. The report submittedby the organization has made severalrecommendations for making the Indian CementIndustry more competitive in the internationalmarket. The recommendations are underconsideration.
Cement industry has been decontrolled fromprice and distribution
on 1st March 1989 andde-licensed on 25th July 1991. However, theperformance of the industry and prices of cementare monitored regularly. Being a keyinfrastructure industry, the constraints faced bythe industry are reviewed in the InfrastructureCoordination Committee meetings held in theCabinet Secretariat under the Chairmanship of Secretary (Coordination). The Committee onInfrastructure also reviews its performance.
Technological change
Continuous technological upgrading andassimilation of latest technology has been goingon in the cement industry. Presently 93 per centof the total capacity in the industry is based onmodern and environment-friendly dry processtechnology and only 7 per cent of the capacity is

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