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Data Communication and Networking

Data Communication and Networking

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Published by: tuniya4 on Nov 20, 2009
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Chapter – 1Fundamental of Data Communications
Data Communication is a system consisting of carries and related devices used to transport datafrom one point to another. Communication means to convey a message, an idea, a picture or speechthat is received and understood clearly and correctly by the person for whom it is conveyed.
Ancient Methods of Communication and Their Demerits
– Message were sent in olden timeseither through horse riders or by using pigeons. There was no surety that the messenger will be able toconvey the message exactly in the same form as told to him verbally.
Electronic Methods of Communication
With the invention of telephone instrument and thecommunication satellites, the means of electronic communication has become very popular in Indiaeven though the cost of installation and maintenance of telephones is still very high and beyond themeans of a common man.
Limitations of Telephonic Communication
:(a)Both the sender and the receiver of the message should be available at the same time andshould speak the same language to understand.(b)Telephone communication is not a secured means of communication because anyone canoverhear the message.(c)It is not suitable to send picture or any other type of message except a spoken message.(d)It is affected by the electrical interference or by the people digging roads etc.(e)It is still quite costly to make a telephone call outside the city or the country.
Computerized Communication
– Since the time computers have started playing an important role inthe field of communications. The main reason for this is that computers can send data extremely fast. They can even transmit pictures and sound in a much secured manner. Further, PCs can sendinformation on the existing telephone line.
Advantage of Computerized Communication
(a)Telephonic calls, using Internet, can be made to any part of the world with the same expensesas a local telephone call made within the city.(b)Pictures, sound and written matter can be sent within minutes and a confirmation about itreaching at the destination can be obtained immediately.(c)Message can be sent in coded form so that they are not understood by anybody else except theperson who is sending and the person who is receiving them.(d)Message can be sent in any language from any place of world to any place.(e)Users need not take highly specialized training for sending or receiving message.2.
Communication Systems
A Communication system is the combination of hardware, software and data transfer links thatmake up a communication facility for transferring data in a cost effective and efficient manner. Acommunication system itself can be either analog or digital. The technique by which a digital signal isconverted to its analog form is known as
. The reverse process i.e. conversion of analogsignal to digital signal is known as
. These processes of conversions carried out by aspecial device called
Advantage of Digital Transmission over Analog Transmission
:–(a)The voice data, music and images can be interspersed to make more efficient use of the samecircuits and equipment.(b)Much higher transmission rates are possible using telephone lines.(c)Digital transmission is much cheaper than analog transmission.(d)Maintenance of a digital system is easier than maintenance of analog system.(e)A digital signal can pass through an arbitrary number of regenerators in with no loss in signaland thus travel long distances with no information loss. In contrast, analog signal always suffersome information loss when amplified, and this loss is cumulative.3.
Signal And Data
Data in a communication system can be either digital data or analog data.
Digital Data
– On the hockey playground, the referee blows a whistle and all the players in the fieldunderstand the message instantaneously. The whistle blown in short bursts of high pitched sound likePEE, PE or it may have a long burst PEEEEEEE. The first one is indication to the players to start thegame and the second long whistle is to stop the match immediately. The message conveyed by thesound energy in short pulses is very clear to all the players. This is an example of Digital Data Transmission.
Analog Data
– When we sit in a concert hall where many musical instrument being played by differentplayers. For example say one player to playing sitar and other is playing tabla. This is an analog datacommunication. Both sitar and tabla are sending sound waves in the same sequence and there is arhythm and harmony between the two. Any music system conveys the songs in the analog form.
Different Characteristics of Analog and Digital Data Communication
: -
ItemAnalog TransmissionDigital TransmissionFormIt is in the form of continuousvariable of physical quantitiesIt is in the form of discretequantities and has binary digitsCost of transmissionLowHighEfficiencyLowhighMaintenance cost of equipmentHighLowEffect of noiseHighLowAttenuationHighLowExampleTV transmission from DoorDarshanData transmission from harddisk to memory4.
Channel Characteristics
A communication channel provides the medium to move electromagnetic energy from a sourceto one or more destination points. It is a pathway over which data are transferred between remotedevices.
: -(a)It should be able to deliver maximum amount of electromagnetic energy from the transmitter tothe receiver with minimum cost.(b)It should not add much noise on the way so that the receiver is able to understand the messagecorrectly.(c)There should not be any restriction on the distances between the transmitter where the senderis located and the receiver where the signal is received.
Types of Communication Channels
: - There are two types of communication channel used in data communication. These are:(a)A public telephone system(b)A commercial radio stationBoth these channels are used for transfer of voice in analog form. The other type of channel is used forthe transmission of the data between a PC and a printer. This carries digital data and transmits squarewaves. The digital signal between a PC and printer also gets attenuated if the distance of the printer islong.
Digital Channel Capacity
: - The capacity of a digital channel is the number of data bits a channel conveys in one second. The measurement is in bits per second (bps). It is also known as bit rate of channel. The bit rate of networking ranges from kilobits per second or Kbps to millions of bits per second. The duration of abinary digit determines the bit rate. The shorter duration of bit is the cause of the greater the bpsrating of the signal.Relationship between bit time and bit rate per second: -
Bit time (millisec)Bit rate persecond(bps)Bit time (millisec)Bit rate persecond(bps)
Baud and Bit Rate
: - Baud is a measure of the digital signaling rate in a channel. Bit rate is a measureof the digital bit values the channel conveys with each baud. The only way to increase the digital bit rate is to decrease the bit time of the signal. Butelectrical characteristics of the material used for conveying the bits limit the reduction in the size of thebit time and thus fixing the maximum bit rate per second.
Maximum Data Rate of a Channel: -
 The maximum data rate of a noisy channel whose bandwidth isin Hertz (Hz), and whose signal-to-noise ratio, shown as S/N in decibels, is given by:Maximum number of bits/sec = H1092 (1 + S/N)5.
Transmission Modes
 There are three modes of data transmission. These are:
Simplex Simplex communication imply a simple method of communication. In simplexcommunications mode, there is a one way communication transmission. Television transmissionis a very good example of this type of communication.(b)Half-duplex - In half-duplex mode, both units communicate over the same medium, but only oneunit can send at a time. While one is in send mode, the other unit is in receiving mode. It is liketwo polite people talking to each other—one talks, the other listens, but neither one talks at thesame time.(c)Full-duplex - In a half-duplex system, the line must be "turned around" each time the direction isreversed. This involves a special switching circuit and requires a small amount of time(approximately 150 milliseconds). With high speed capabilities of the computer, this turn-around
time is unacceptable in many instances. Also, some applications require simultaneoustransmission in both directions. In such cases, a full-duplex system is used that allowsinformation to flow simultaneously in both directions on the transmission path. Use of a full-duplex line improves efficiency as the line turn-around time required in a half-duplexarrangement is eliminated. It requires four wires.6.
Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission
Asynchronous Mode: -
Asynchronous mode refers to a series of events that take place which are notsynchronized one after the other.
Asynchronous Transmission: -
Asynchronous transmission is often referred to as start-stoptransmission because of its nature, that is the sender can send a character at any time convenient andthe receiver will accept it. Asynchronous communication lines remain in an idle state until the hardwareon the line is ready to transmit. Since the line is idle, a series of bits have to be sent to the receivingnode to notify it that there is more data coming. When data is finished, the node has to be notified thatthe transmission is complete and to go back to an idle state, hence the STOP bits are to be sent. Thispattern continues for the duration of the time the link is operative. This is the characteristic of manyterminals when on a terminal, the time spent between successive keystrokes would vary. Thus, inasynchronous transmission, data is transmitted character by character at irregular intervals.
Synchronous Transmission: -
Synchronous devices need not use Start and Stop bits; so coordinationbetween the two nodes, i.e. the sender and the receiver, is handled differently. In synchronouscommunications, there are two "channels" - one for data and another for link Synchronization. Thechannel for synchronization uses the integral clock in the hardware for link synchronization betweenthe two nodes when one of the nodes is ready to transmit data, a unique combination of bits called aSync Character is sent to the receiver. Since the first character will probably get trashed, a second oneusually follows to ensure that synchronization is complete.
Comparison between Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission: -
Synchronous communications tend to be more expensive than asynchronous ones as thehardware involved is more costly due to integral clocking mechanism that have to be used as wellas more sophisticated engineering efforts.
Synchronous transmission is well suited to remote communication between a computer and suchdevices as buffered card readers and printers. It is also used for computer to computercommunications.
 The primary advantage of synchronous transmission is its efficiency. Not only does it eliminate theneed for individual start-stop bits on each character, but much higher data rates can be used thanwith asynchronous transmission.
Asynchronous transmission is well suited to many keyboard type terminals. The advantage of thismethod is that it does not require any local storage at the terminal or the computer astransmission takes place character by character. Hence it is cheaper to implement.
Efficiency of Data Transmission in Synchronous and Asynchronous Modes: -
Asynchronousdata incorporates the use of extra framing bits to establish the start and ending (stop) of a datacharacter word. A receiver responds to the data stream when it detects a start bit. A data character isdecoded and defined after the stop bit is received and confirmed. Asynchronous data are easier todetect and synchronize, but the efficiency of data transmission is reduced by the addition of framingbits as overhead (no message data) bits.A comparison of a single character using the two data types is as follows. For this purpose, theASCII code of the letter E (1000101) is used. The order of transmission is to send the Least SignificantBit (LSB) first. The number of framing bits used for asynchronous data varies depending on the stationsin the communication link. For example, suppose we use 1 start and 2 stop bits. This adds 3 more bitsto the character 'word. Hence total 10 bits are required to send the letter E using asynchronous data.However, in' the case of synchronous transmission, only 7 bits are required for transmission of thecharacter E. The efficiency of transmission is defined as the ratio of the number of message bits to the total numberof transmitted bits:or% efficiency =
totalbit databit 
x 100
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC): -
In synchronous communications, CRC is used to verify theintegrity of the entire packet or block of data. Integrity of the packet means whether the completepacket of data is received in its correct form as it was sent at the sending end. In synchronouscommunications, parity checking is sufficient to ensure data integrity. In high-speed asynchronouscommunications, single bit corrections are not enough. As each packet is created, a CRC check isplaced somewhere in the packet and is verified at the receiving end.CRC is a calculation method used to check the accuracy of a digital transmission over acommunication link. The sending computer uses one of several formulas to calculate a value from the

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