DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING
Chapter – 1Fundamental of Data Communications
Data Communication is a system consisting of carries and related devices used to transport datafrom one point to another. Communication means to convey a message, an idea, a picture or speechthat is received and understood clearly and correctly by the person for whom it is conveyed.
Ancient Methods of Communication and Their Demerits
– Message were sent in olden timeseither through horse riders or by using pigeons. There was no surety that the messenger will be able toconvey the message exactly in the same form as told to him verbally.
Electronic Methods of Communication –
With the invention of telephone instrument and thecommunication satellites, the means of electronic communication has become very popular in Indiaeven though the cost of installation and maintenance of telephones is still very high and beyond themeans of a common man.
Limitations of Telephonic Communication
:(a)Both the sender and the receiver of the message should be available at the same time andshould speak the same language to understand.(b)Telephone communication is not a secured means of communication because anyone canoverhear the message.(c)It is not suitable to send picture or any other type of message except a spoken message.(d)It is affected by the electrical interference or by the people digging roads etc.(e)It is still quite costly to make a telephone call outside the city or the country.
– Since the time computers have started playing an important role inthe field of communications. The main reason for this is that computers can send data extremely fast. They can even transmit pictures and sound in a much secured manner. Further, PCs can sendinformation on the existing telephone line.
Advantage of Computerized Communication
–(a)Telephonic calls, using Internet, can be made to any part of the world with the same expensesas a local telephone call made within the city.(b)Pictures, sound and written matter can be sent within minutes and a confirmation about itreaching at the destination can be obtained immediately.(c)Message can be sent in coded form so that they are not understood by anybody else except theperson who is sending and the person who is receiving them.(d)Message can be sent in any language from any place of world to any place.(e)Users need not take highly specialized training for sending or receiving message.2.
A Communication system is the combination of hardware, software and data transfer links thatmake up a communication facility for transferring data in a cost effective and efficient manner. Acommunication system itself can be either analog or digital. The technique by which a digital signal isconverted to its analog form is known as
. The reverse process i.e. conversion of analogsignal to digital signal is known as
. These processes of conversions carried out by aspecial device called
Advantage of Digital Transmission over Analog Transmission
:–(a)The voice data, music and images can be interspersed to make more efficient use of the samecircuits and equipment.(b)Much higher transmission rates are possible using telephone lines.(c)Digital transmission is much cheaper than analog transmission.(d)Maintenance of a digital system is easier than maintenance of analog system.(e)A digital signal can pass through an arbitrary number of regenerators in with no loss in signaland thus travel long distances with no information loss. In contrast, analog signal always suffersome information loss when amplified, and this loss is cumulative.3.
Signal And Data
Data in a communication system can be either digital data or analog data.
– On the hockey playground, the referee blows a whistle and all the players in the fieldunderstand the message instantaneously. The whistle blown in short bursts of high pitched sound likePEE, PE or it may have a long burst PEEEEEEE. The first one is indication to the players to start thegame and the second long whistle is to stop the match immediately. The message conveyed by thesound energy in short pulses is very clear to all the players. This is an example of Digital Data Transmission.
– When we sit in a concert hall where many musical instrument being played by differentplayers. For example say one player to playing sitar and other is playing tabla. This is an analog datacommunication. Both sitar and tabla are sending sound waves in the same sequence and there is arhythm and harmony between the two. Any music system conveys the songs in the analog form.
Different Characteristics of Analog and Digital Data Communication
NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR