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metaanálisis de la situación extraña

metaanálisis de la situación extraña

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Cross-cultural Patterns of A ttachm ent:
A M eta-A nalysis of the Strange
S itu a tio n
M arinus H . van IJzendoum
a n d P ie te rM . K ro o n e n b e rg
U n iv e r s ity o f L i'id e n
V AN IJZ K N D O O H N .M A H IM 'S
II., a n dK nooN K N U K iu;,
I'l h ,ii:n
M .C w ss-c tilltin il
t'a ltc r n s
n f
A lliirli-
m e n i:
AM t'ta -A n a h js h
o f th e
S tr a n g e
S itu a tio n .
C H IL D
D K\KL ()I'M E N T ,
19S8, 59, 147-156. Cross-
culhiral researchu s in )i, A iii.sw orths Straiip ' Sidiatinii tcT ids to ifK
(in iiicoinplctf

in lo jin a fid iia n dt o concentrate on individual lathfi tliaii aggregated sam ples.I n this study,a w ider peispetiixei s taken hy exam ining alm ost 2,000 Strange Situation elassifieatioiis ohtained

iniS difleienl ((.nintries. D itfei-
e iie e s
a n d sim ilan ties
betw een
( iistiih iitio n s
inc la s s ific a tio n s
< iis u m p h ^ s
a rein v e s tig a te d
u s in g
c o n e s p o n d e n c e
analysis. Aggregation
o l sam p les
p ei c o u n ln
AIH ]
cD ntineiit
a llo u e d
loi a
fin n ti'i
e m p i r i c a l b a s i s t< n e r o s s - c n l t m a l a n a l y s i s . S n b s t a n t i a l i n t r a c n i t n r a l d i f V e r e n i e s w e r e e s t a l i l i s h e d ; in a
num bero t instances, sample's Irom
1c o u n try r e s e m b le d ih o s ei n o ilie r c o iu itrie s u io re th a n th e>d id
e a e h
other. T he
data also suggi-sta pattern
o (c i o s s - e u l t i u a !
d ille r e n te s ,i n v \ h ie h
A classilieations
em erge
a sre la tiv e ly
m o re
p re v a le n l
in W estern
lM L ro |iean
( o n n trie sa n dC
c la s s ific a tio n s
iisr e l a -
tiv e ly
m o re
fre n iie n l
in
Is ra e l
a n dj a p a u .
h itra c u ltin a l
v a ria tio n
w as T ieinh
f .5tim es
th ec r o s s -
c u ltu ra l
v a ria tio n .

Cross-cultiiral aspcetso l attacliT iic'iit tlu'- oiy and findings liave been discussed lor sev- e ra l

y e a rs
( A in sw o rth ,
1 9 7 7 ; B retherton,
1 9 8 5 ;'H in d e , 1 9 8 2 ; L a m b , T b o n i|) so ii, G a rd -
ner,& C ham ov,
1 9 8 5 ;S a ^ i &
L ew k ow ie/,
1 9 8 7 ).R e.seareh
using tlie
S tra n g e
S itu a tio n
paradifjni (A insw orth, B lehar, W aters, & W all,
1 9 7 8 )
in varions conntries
seem ed
( os h o w
marked differences
in distributions o( attach-
m ent classification.s aeross eultm es: distribu-
tions fbm id
inB ie le le ld , F e d e ra l R e p u b h e of
G erm any (G rossm ann, G rossm ann, SpaT igler,
Siiess,i k U nzner,

1985),i n Sappoi'o, Japan ( M i y a k e , C h e n , & C a m p o s , 1 9 8 .5 ; T a k a h a s h i , 1 9 8 6 ),a n d in Israeli kibbutzim

(Saj^ ie t a l.,
1985) w ere seent o deviate stronj^ly from
th e
A m eriean
" sta n d a rd "
d istrib u tio n
o !a b o u t
2 0 %
avoidant (A), 70%
seeure (\u00ab), and 10%

resistant(C ) attaehment relationships (Ains- w o rthe t a l., 1 9 7 8 ) . A re la tiv e ly h ig h p e rc e n t- a g e

of A
e la s s ifie a tio iis
w ere
fo u n d
in
B ielefeld, anda relatively high percentage of
C classifications,i n Japan and Israel.

Iti s somew hat curious thats o nincli a t- te n tio n h a s b e e n p a id to d e v ia n t d is trib n tio n s fo u n d

in
th e se
sam p les

( se e .io r in sta n c e , B retherton, 1985; L am b et al., 1985). B ecause sam ple sizes in attachm ent researeh gt'iicrally have been rather sm all, sam pling error eannot alw ays

b e
ru le d
o u t. In
th ee a s e
of th e

B ielefeld sample, U inde (1982) rightly speaks o i a " p ro v is io n a l" fin d in g : ii th e o b ta in e d d is- tribution deviates not onK' from the A m erican " sta n d a rd "

b u t also Irom
o th e r C k 'rm a na n d
W estern
E nrop ean
d istrib n ti{ ) n s,i t s c h a ra c -
te ris tic s
n e e d
to b ere p lic a te d
b efo re

sp ec- u la tio n s a b o u t th is p o p u la tio n 's id io sy n e n itie cultmal background

can be sericnisK' enter-
ta in e d .

In general, eross-eiiltiual diseussionso t attachm ent theory and findings bave presup- p osed that tliere are large eross-enltm -al differ- e n c e s

com p ared
w ith
in tra e iiltu ra l
d iffe r-
e n c e s;
how ever,
n oe m p iric a l
s tu d ie s
h av e

addressed this issne on the available data. Al- th o u g h L a m be t a!. ( 1 9 8 5 , p . 1 8 3 ) , F th e n a k is (1 9 8 5 ,p. 223),van IJzendoorn (1986a, p.559). a n d S iig i a n d L e w k o w i e / ( 1 9 8 7 , p . 4 3 2 ) h a v e com p ared

attachm ent
c la s s ific a ti( n i
d istrib u -
tions from
several different cultint's,a t most
o n l>
ath ird
of thea v a ila b le
e v id e n e e w ay
considered in each instance; statem ents abtiut
tlie
p ro p o rtio n
o i
in traeiiltm ^ al
to
c ro ss-
cultural diflerenees
c o u ld
th e re fo re

o iiK 'b e imprecise.F or example. L ambe t a l. (1985) m e n tio n e d lio th \ a ria tio n s of d is trib n tio n s b e - tw een

an d
w ith in c u ltu re s , b u t th e yd id
n{\u00bbt
com p are tlie relatively large intracultural vari-
ationo f the U nited
States w ith
th a to f n o n -
'I'h e
a u th o rs
ack now ledge
th elie lp iu l
com m ents
ol'W illiam
I '. G ardner
iin d
a n
anonym ous
re v ie w e r on an e a rlie r d rafto f th is n u m u s c rip t.A p re v io u s
\ e r s io u
w as |)iesentcd
at th e b ieim ial
meeting ofthe
S o c ie ty
lo r R eseareh
m
C h ik I
D e v e lo ijm e n t,
Haltiniore, M l), Apiil
H)87. R e(iiiests
tor reprints shouldb e addressed
to M arinus
11. van
H zcndoorn, D eijai-hnento l iL ducation. U T n\er-
sityo f L e id e n , P .O . B ox 9 5 0 7 , N L -2 3 0 ( ) R A
L eiden,
N etherlands.
[ C h itd D e v d o p m e n t,
1 9 8 8 , 5 9 , 1 4 7 -1 .5 6 . \u00a9
1988 hy the Sofi<'t>' H IT Hcst-arch in Child D evi^lopment. Inc.
All rit'hts rf-sejved. (HX )9-3y2()/88/.5:-X II-0022S<)l.(X )|
1 4 8
C h ild D e v e lo p m e n t
A m erican distributions (see also, Sagi & L ew -
kow icz, 1987).
F in a lly , it is b y n o m e a n s e le a r w h e th e r
th e
m ueh-discnssed
d e v ia tio n s
fro m
tlie

Am erican "standard" distribution are as dra- m atic as is often suggested. In the absenee of system atic analysis of a w ide range of A m eri- can and non-Ameriean distributions obtained in d iffe re n t s a m p le s , it is im p o s s ib le to e v a lu - a te

w hether
sn e h
d e v ia tio n s
a re
in d e e d
significant or m ay only refleet expectable be-
tw een-sample variation.
In this study w e consider the largest data
b a s e of S tra n g e S itu a tio n
c la s s ifie a tio n s
e o l-
Ie e te d
so far. By com paring
in d iv id u a l sam -
p le s
w ith
a
" g lo b a l"
d istrib u tio n ,
d e riv e d
across all available sam ples, a m ore appropri-
ate perspective on sam ple-speeifie

v a ria tio n s can be gained. Furthem iore, by aggregating d a ta p e r c o u n try o r c o n tin e n t, th e risk of c a p i- ta liz in g o n o u tly in g a n d u n re lia b le

d istrib u - tio n s o f in d iv id u a l s a m p le s w ill b e le s s e n e d . L astly, by considering not only Ainsw orth et a l.'s ( 1 9 7 8 ) " s ta n d a rd " d istrib u tio n

b u t o th e r American sam ples as w ell, it becom es possi- ble to eompare

more precisely
in tra c u ltu n il
versus cross-eultiiral diH erenees.
M e th o d
D a ta
b a s e .\u2014 A
com p uter
se a rc h
of tlie
"L ock heed
file s "
for the
k ey
w ord
" a tta e h -
m ent" as w ell as exam ination ofthe

m n itin a - tional data set eom piled by Sagi and Connell ( se e , Sagi & L ew k ow iez, 1987) w ere used to id e n tify re le v a n t s tu d ie s . T h e fo llo w in g e rite - ria

w ere
su b se ( ju e n tly
a p p lie d
in

s e le c tin g the data base lor the eurrent analysis. (1) O nly s tu d ie s

o n
in fa n t-m o th e r
attachm ent
u sin g
elassieal Strange Situation procedures and re-
p o rtin g th e d istrib u tio n

of A, B , and C elas- sifieations w ere eonsidered; other caregiver- in fa n t

d y a d s,
assessm ents
b y
nonshm dard
procedures, and
s tu d ie s
in
w hieh
A
a n dC
c la s s ifie a tio n s
w ere reported as a single "in-
secure" category

w ere exeluded. (2) Speeial groups sueh as D ow n's syndrome children or tw ins w ere ex eluded, as w ere sam p les of less than N

= 3 5 ( th is la tte r w a s to a v o id s a m p lin g
in s tiib ilitie s
a n d
e ffe e ts
of
p o s s ib le
m is-
e la s s ifie a tio n s
on individual sam pling distri-
butions). (3)
S tu d ie s
w ith
o v e rla p p in g
sam -
p le s
w ere
e lim in a te d .
T hus,
fo r

ex am p le, M atas, Arend, and Sroufe's (1978) sam ple w as exeluded because

11 of the 48
su b je c ts
h a d
b e e n
in e lu d e d
in
a n o th e r
stu d y ;
to

re fle e t fin d in g s re p o rte d b y th e M in n e s o ta L o n g itu - dinal Projeet in various publications, w e se- lected only their largest sam ple, as described

by E geland and Farher (1984). (4) Studies in- v o lv in g c h ild re n o ld e r th a n 2 4 m o n th s w e re e x e lu d e d ; tlie o ld e s t sa m p le in e lu d e d in th e dati base had a m ean age of2 1 m onths and e a m e fro m

G oossens's study (1986; see also,
v an
IJzendoom, G oossens, Kroonenberg, &
T a v e c c h io , 1 9 8 5 ) . In to ta l, 3 2
sam p les
fro m
e ig h t c o u n trie s
w ere
se le c te d ,
re p re s e n tin g
1 ,9 9 0 S tra n g e S itu a tio n
e la ssifie a tio n s.
D a ta
a n a ly s e s .\u2014 T he

samples w ere cast in a c o n tin g e n c y ta b le , w ith s a m p le N 's as o n e of the m arginal distributions and frequency of A,B , and C classifications over a ll sam ples as th e o th e r { see T a b le

1). T hree k inds of anal-
yses w ere performed on these data.

1 . T o assess signifieant deviations in fre- q uency ofa particular classification in a given sam p le, standardized residuals for eaeh cell of tlie table\u2014 eom puted as [(O

-
ii;)^ /(\u00a3 )]''^ , tliat
is , die sq uare root of tlie eell's contiibntion to

the overall chi square or, m ore eorreet, Pear- son's x^\u2014 w ere obtained. T hese residuals are standardized deviations ftom a m odel of inde- p e n d e n c e

betw een
row s
a n d
c o lu m n s
a n d
hence provide an index
of v a ria b ility ; u n d e r
a d e q u a te
assum p tions,
th e y
a re

a s y m p to ti- cally standard norm al distributed (see B ishop, F ienberg, & H olland, 1975). A large standard- ized residual indicates tliat the observed eell fretjueney is considerably larger or, if the sign is n e g a tiv e , s m a lle r th a n

ex p ected
fro m
th e
m arginals. B ecause
a large
number of cells
w e re to b e e v a lu a te d ( tlire e e a te g o rie s
x
3 2
samples -
96 cells), the B onferroni approaeh
w as used
to guard
a g a in s t e a p it;iliz a tio n
o n
chance: the standard
alpha level of .05 w as
d iv id e d
b y
96, and
a tw o-tailed

B onfeiT oni alpha level of .0()()5 w as adopted. Standard- ized residuals of 3.5 or larger attain this level of signifieance.

2 .T o
e v a lu a te

the extent of cross- and intracultural differences, the overall variation ( i.e ., Pearson's x^) w as partitioned

into sums
of squared
re sid u a ls
o v e r
sam p les
w ith in
a
c o u n try
a n d
tJiose betw een

e o u n trie s . S im i- la rly , th e v a ria tio n b e tw e e n c o u n trie s m ay b e further partitioned into sum s of squared resid- u a ls o v e r c o u n trie s w ith in

a re g io n o r c o n ti-
n e n t
a n d
th o se
betw een
re g io n s
( se e
G reenacre, 1985, pp. 203-204).
3 . T o investigate similarities and
d iffe r-

ences in sam ple profiles (i.e., the distribution of relative p rop ortions of A ,B , and C classi- fieations), w e used

e o rre sp o n d e n c e
a n a ly sis,
a te e h n iq u e
w id ely
u se d
b y
F reneh
in v e s-
tig a to rs
( fo r
d e ta ils ,
se e
B enzecri,

1 9 7 6 ; G reenaere, 1985; N ishisato, 1980). B riefly de- sc rib e d ,

th e
m etlio d
p e rm its
s im u lta n e o u s
van IJzendoom
and Kroonenberg
1 4 9

analysis of both sam ple and category profiles; its s o lu tio ni s o b tiiin e d v ia s in g n la r v a lu e d e - com position of tlie standardized residnals and a

w e ig h tin g
of tbes i n g u l a r
v e e to rs
b y
th e
square root ofthe
sin g u la r v a lu e s m u ltip lie d
by the inverse square root ofN
su b je e ts in a
sam ple or category.
In graphie represetituitionso f the results
of tilis analysis (sueha s depicted
iuF ig . I) ,
tlie
o rig in
re p re s e n ts
th em arginal
d istrib u -
tio n so f b o th
categoriesa n d sam p les;i n
e s -
se n e e , it is the g lo b al
d istiib u tio n

d e riv e d from all tlie sam ples, and sam ples close to the o rig in h a v e p ro file s th a t e lo s e ly re s e m b le th e g lo b a l o n e . D is ta iie e fro m

th e o rig iti in d e x e s the extent to w hich the given sam ple or cate- gory distribution

d e v ia te s
fro m
itsm arginal
d istrib u tio n ,a n d th e d ire c tio n
in d ic a te s th e

kind of deviation. Sam pleso r categories that are close together resem ble eaeh <ither, and th o se th a t d e v ia tei n o jjp o site

d ire c tio tis a re
negatively related; w hen

botha sample and category point are close together,th e devia- tion from the m arginal distribntions is p articu- larly pronouneedi n that sam ple-and-category com bination.I n sum , the representation

|) e r-
m its
se e in g
w hich
sam p les
h a v e
sim ilar

profiles over categories and w bieh eategories have sim ilar profiles over sainples, as w ella s w hieh categories and w hieh samples deviate markedly from

th e ir " g lo b a l" d istrib u tio n .
R esu lts
T he frequeneies
o f A , /J, and
C
c la ssifi-
eations obtained in each ofthe 32 sam ples (as
w ella s sum m ed over eoutitries and
re g io n s)
aie show n in T able
1.I n all but one instanee
(G rossm ann
et al.,1 9 8 5 , la b e le d
F 2 in
th e
ta b le ) , theB eategory em erges as modal.
D e v ia tio n s
fr o m
e x p e c te d
fr e q u e n c ie s :
s ta n d a r d iz e d
r e s id u a ls .\u2014 Considering
first
th e
d atiifo r e o u n trie s
( itix lie iz e d
e n trie si n
T able 1),the standardized residuals are nega-
tiv e
(sm aller
th a n
ex p ected)
for th e C
a n d
p o sitiv e
( la rg e r
th a n
ex p eeted)
for tbe
A
c la s s ific a tio n
iti all th e four W estern

E nro- p e a n c o u n t r i e s ; t h e o b v e r s ei s tiT ie lo r I s r a e l and Japan. In the single C'hinese

sam p leo l
U .S . residents, theB catcgoiy is less freq uent
th a n
ex p ected.
In d iv id u a l
sam p les
w ith in
c o u n trie s th a t h a v e e e lls w ith sig n ific a n t d e v i-
a tio n s
fro m
m arginal
e x p e c ta tio n s
in e lu d e
G rossm ann's B ielefeld

s a m p le ( F 2 ) , in w h ic h A's are overrepresented; Sagi's Israeli kibbut- z im

sam p le
(II) and E geland
a n d F arber's
sam ple (U 9), w hich are characterized by over-
re p re se n ta tio n
o fC's; and the Sapporo sam-
p le ( J 2 ) ,i n w h ie h s ig n ifie a n tly fe w e r A 's a n d
s ig n ific a n tly
m o re C 's w e re io n n d .
I n tr a e n ltu r a l
v e r s n s
c r o s s -c u ltu r a ld if-
fe r e n c e s : p a r titio n in g
v a r ia tio n .\u2014 In
o u r d a ta
b a se ,d i f f e r e n c e s
betw een
sam ples, x^(62,N
=
1 ,9 9 0 )=
248.6,p < .( X M ) 1 ; betw een conn-
trte s ,x ^ ( 1 4 ,N
=
1 ,9 9 0 )
=
1 0 2 .4 ,p <.O ( X ) 1 ;
and betw een
continents, x"'(6,N
=
1 ,9 9 0 )
~ -
9 2 .1 ,p <
.0 0 0 1 ,a res ig n ifie a n t.
D lfferenees
betw een
sam p les
w ith in
th e
F ederal B e-
publie of G erm any, x^(4,N
-
1 3 6 )^
1 6 .5 ,p
< .0 1 ; w ith in J a p a n , x ^ ( 2 ,iV= 9 6 )= 9 .6 ,p <
.0 1 ; and w ithin the U nited SUites, x"(34,N=
1 ,2 3 0 )
-

102.8,p <.0 0 0 1 , are signifieanta s w ell. D ifferences b etw een sam p les w ithin Is- rael, x^(2,A '=

1 1 8 )= 5 .9 , p-
.0 5 , and w ithin
t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , x " ( 6 , .V
=
2 5 1 )=
1 1 .2 ,p
=
.0 8 ,a reo n ly
m arg itially
s ig n ifie a n t.
D iffer-
ences betw een
th e d istrib u tio tis ofthe non-
U .S . eo u n tries and th e U n ited SU ites itself are
n e g lig ib le , x " ( 2 , N
-
1 ,9 9 0 )=
.3; N .S.
T o aequire
som e
in d ic a tio n
o f tlie rela-

tive size of the intracultura! and cross-cultiu'al differenees, the tot;il variation (i.e., Pearson's X ^)o f T a b le

1i s p a rtitio n e d
into parts asso-
c ia te d
w ith
e o u n trie s
a tid
c o n tin e n ts( s e e
T able 2).
T he m (jst salient asp ect of T able 2 is that
th e
jntracultural variation
( i.e., w ith in
c o u n -
trie s )
isn e a r l y
1 .5tim es
tb ec r o s s - c n l t i t r a l
v a ria tio n ( i.e ., b e tw e e n e o u n trie s ) . T h e a v e r-
a g e v a ria tio n
p e r sample w ithin countries is
esp ecially
la rg e
in the F ederal

B e p u b lico f G erm any (6.2) and the U nited States (5.8) and much sm aller in the N etherlands (2.7) and Ja- p a n ( 2 .7 ) . F o r G re a t B ritiiin , S w e d e n , a tid th e (A m eriean)

C h in e se
sam p le
th is
c a n , o f

course, not be assessed. T he contributionso t G erman and D uteh samplest o tlie betw een- conntry variation are about the sam e as their w ith in -e o u n try

variation. As w illb e seeni n more detail later, the w ithin-U .S. variationi s su e h

th a tth e U n ite d

S ta te shas an A ,B, C distribntion elosely resem bling the global dis- tribution. O n the average, the Japanese and Is ra e li

sam p les
e o n ttib u te
m ost to the
b e -

tw een-eountries and betw een-continent vari- ation. T he W estern E urop ean eountries have re la tiv e ly

sim ilar
p ro file s :
of the betw een-

e o u n trie s v a ria tio no f 4 .6p er s a m p le , o n lya q uarter (1.1) is associated w ith the differences among tliemselves, w hereasth e rest (3.5)i s a sso c ia te d

w ith
d iffe re n e e s
w ith
( c o n n trie s
from ) o th e r c o n tin e n ts .
S im ila rities
a n d d iffe r e n c e s
i np r o file s :
correspondence analysis.\u2014 A correspondence
analysis w as carried
o u t to get an o v e rv ie w
of the
stru c tu ra l
sim ilaritiesa n d differenees

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