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Thuat giai di truyen

Thuat giai di truyen

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Published by: api-19440046 on Nov 21, 2009
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03/18/2014

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THU\u1eacT GI\u1ea2I DI TRUY\u1ec0N \u2013 GENETIC ALGORITHM
GS.TSKH Ho\u00e0ng Ki\u1ebfm
1. T\u1eea NG\u1eaaU NHI\u00caN\u0110\u1ebeN THU\u1eacT GI\u1ea2I DI TRUY\u1ec0N
V\u1edbi c\u00e1c s\u1ed1 ng\u1eabu nhi\u00ean, ch\u00fang ta\u0111\u00e3 c\u00f3 nh\u1eefng l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i th\u1eadt\u0111\u1ed9c\u0111\u00e1o cho m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1-b\u00e0i to\u00e1n kh\u00f3 nh\u1ea5t
\u0111\u1ecbnh \u2013 nh\u1eefng v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1-b\u00e0i to\u00e1n hi\u1ec7n ch\u01b0a c\u00f3 m\u1ed9tl\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i ch\u00ednh x\u00e1c, t\u1ed5ng qu\u00e1t n\u00e0o. Tuy nhi\u00ean, n\u1ebfu ch\u1ec9
d\u1eebng l\u1ea1i\u1edf \u0111\u00f3, ng\u1eabu nhi\u00ean c\u0169ng ch\u1ec9 l\u00e0 may r\u1ee7i v\u00e0 ho\u00e0n to\u00e0n ch\u01b0a\u0111\u1ee7 s\u1ee9c gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft c\u00e1c v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1-b\u00e0i to\u00e1n
ph\u1ee9c t\u1ea1p h\u01a1n ho\u1eb7c c\u00f3 kh\u00f4ng gian t\u00ecm ki\u1ebfm l\u1edbn h\u01a1n.

M\u1ed9t v\u00ed d\u1ee5 r\u1ea5t\u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n l\u00e0 t\u00ecm m\u1eadt m\u00e3\u0111\u1ec3 m\u1edf kh\u00f3a v\u1edbi m\u1eadt m\u00e3 l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t con s\u1ed1 th\u1eadp ph\u00e2n c\u00f3 30 ch\u1eef s\u1ed1 \u2013
gi\u1ea3 \u0111\u1ecbnh r\u1eb1ng\u1ed5 kh\u00f3a n\u00e0y ch\u1ec9 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u1edf b\u1eb1ng m\u1ed9t m\u1eadt m\u00e3 duy nh\u1ea5t. V\u1edbi b\u00e0i to\u00e1n n\u00e0y, kh\u00f4ng gian
t\u00ecm ki\u1ebfm l\u00e0 1030 \u2013 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 s\u1ebd c\u00f3 t\u1ed5ng c\u1ed9ng 1030 m\u1eadt m\u00e3 kh\u00e1c nhau. Tr\u01b0\u1edbc v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1 n\u00e0y, ta th\u01b0\u1eddng ch\u1ec9
ngh\u0129 \u0111\u1ebfn hai ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p \u2013 v\u00e9t c\u1ea1n to\u00e0n b\u1ed9 ho\u1eb7c th\u1eed ng\u1eabu nhi\u00ean c\u00e1c m\u1eadt m\u00e3. Ta s\u1ebd ph\u00e1t sinh (ng\u1eabu
nhi\u00ean ho\u1eb7c tu\u1ea7n t\u1ef1 theo m\u1ed9t quy t\u1eafc duy\u1ec7t n\u00e0o\u0111\u00f3) c\u00e1c m\u00e3 kh\u00f3a r\u1ed3i th\u1eed xem m\u1eadt m\u00e3 n\u00e0y c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0 m\u00e3
kh\u00f3a\u0111\u00fang kh\u00f4ng. V\u1edbi ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p n\u00e0y,\u0111\u1ec3 c\u00f3\u0111 \u01b0\u1ee3c m\u1ed9t m\u1eadt m\u00e3 v\u1edbi kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng m\u1edf \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c\u1ed5 kh\u00f3a l\u00e0 tr\u00ean
50%, ta\u0111\u00e3 ph\u1ea3i ph\u00e1t sinh nhi\u1ec1u h\u01a1n 1030/2 m\u1eadt m\u00e3. B\u1ea1n c\u00f3 bi\u1ebft con s\u1ed1 n\u00e0y l\u1edbn kh\u1ee7ng khi\u1ebfp\u0111\u1ebfn m\u1ee9c
n\u00e0o kh\u00f4ng? Tr\u00ean th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf, n\u1ebfu d\u00f9ng si\u00eau m\u00e1y t\u00ednh Cray v\u00e0 gi\u1ea3 \u0111\u1ecbnh r\u1eb1ng c\u1ee9 m\u1ed7i m\u1ed9t ph\u1ea7n t\u1ef7 gi\u00e2y th\u00ec
m\u00e1y n\u00e0y c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 ph\u00e1t sinh v\u00e0 th\u1eed nghi\u1ec7m\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3cm\u1ed9t m\u1eadt m\u00e3 (ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t gi\u00e2y Gray th\u1eed \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c 1 t\u1ef7 m\u1eadt
m\u00e3) th\u00ec n\u00f3 ph\u1ea3i ch\u1ea1y trong m\u1ed9t kho\u1ea3ng th\u1eddi gian t\u01b0\u01a1ng\u0111\u01b0\u01a1ng v\u1edbi "tu\u1ed5i" c\u1ee7a tr\u00e1i\u0111\u1ea5t\u0111\u1ec3 th\u1eed tr\u00ean 1030/2
m\u1eadt m\u00e3 !!!.

D\u0129 nhi\u00ean, khi\u0111\u1ee9ng tr\u01b0\u1edbc nh\u1eefng v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1-b\u00e0i to\u00e1n nh\u01b0 v\u1eady, ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta th\u01b0\u1eddng t\u00ecm c\u00e1ch c\u1ea3i thi\u1ec7n thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch cung c\u1ea5p th\u00eam m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 th\u00f4ng tin kh\u00e1c. Ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n nh\u01b0 v\u1edbi b\u00e0i to\u00e1n m\u1edf kh\u00f3a tr\u00ean l\u00e0 th\u00f4ng tin cho bi\u1ebft trong hai m\u1eadt m\u00e3\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e1t sinh ra, m\u1eadt m\u00e3 n\u00e0o l\u00e0 "t\u1ed1t" h\u01a1n (ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng m\u1edf kh\u00f3a cao h\u01a1n).

C\u00f3 th\u1ec3 b\u1ea1n\u0111\u1ecdc s\u1ebd th\u1eafc m\u1eafc "b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch n\u00e0o\u0111\u1ec3 bi\u1ebft\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c gi\u1eefa hai m\u1eadt m\u00e3, m\u1eadt m\u00e3 n\u00e0o c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng m\u1edf kh\u00f3a cao h\u01a1n?". Th\u00f4ng th\u01b0\u1eddng, khi m\u1edf kh\u00f3a, ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta th\u01b0\u1eddng d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean c\u00e1c t\u00e1c nh\u00e2n v\u1eadt l\u00fd \u2013 nh\u01b0 ti\u1ebfng\u0111\u1ed9ng b\u00ean trong\u1ed5 kh\u00f3a khi\u0111\u01b0a v\u00e0o m\u1ed9t m\u1eadt m\u00e3 \u2013\u0111\u1ec3 d\u1ef1\u0111o\u00e1n\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u00ednh "t\u1ed1t" c\u1ee7a m\u1eadt m\u00e3\u0111ang th\u1eed.

Khi bi\u1ebft\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c\u0111\u1ed9 "t\u1ed1t" c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c m\u1eadt m\u00e3, ta s\u1ebd s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng m\u1ed9t ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p t\u00ecm ki\u1ebfm th\u00f4ng minh h\u01a1n
- m\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta th\u01b0\u1eddng g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 t\u00ecm ki\u1ebfm theo ki\u1ec3u leo\u0111\u1ed3i (hill-climbing). V\u1edbi t\u00ecm ki\u1ebfm leo\u0111\u1ed3i, ta t\u01b0\u1edfng
t\u01b0\u1ee3ng r\u1eb1ng kh\u00f4ng gian t\u00ecm ki\u1ebfm c\u1ee7a v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1-b\u00e0i to\u00e1n l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t v\u00f9ng\u0111\u1ea5t g\u1eadp gh\u1ec1nh (landscape), c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u
ng\u1ecdn\u0111\u1ed3i cao th\u1ea5p kh\u00e1c nhau. Trong\u0111\u00f3, ng\u1ecdn\u0111\u1ed3i cao nh\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a v\u00f9ng\u0111\u1ea5t n\u00e0y s\u1ebd l\u00e0 l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i t\u1ed1t nh\u1ea5t v\u00e0 v\u1ecb
tr\u00ed c\u00f3\u0111\u1ed9 cao c\u00e0ng l\u1edbn th\u00ec c\u00e0ng "g\u1ea7n" v\u1edbi l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i t\u1ed1t nh\u1ea5t (\u0111\u1ed9 cao\u0111\u1ed3ng ngh\u0129a v\u1edbi\u0111\u1ed9 t\u1ed1t c\u1ee7a l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i). T\u00ecm
ki\u1ebfm theo ki\u1ec3u leo\u0111\u1ed3i c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 ch\u00fang ta ph\u1ea3i ph\u00e1t sinh c\u00e1c l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i sao cho c\u00e0ng v\u1ec1 sau c\u00e1c l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i
c\u00e0ng ti\u1ebfn "g\u1ea7n" t\u1edbi l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i t\u1ed1t nh\u1ea5t h\u01a1n. Thao t\u00e1c n\u00e0y c\u0169ng gi\u1ed1ng nh\u01b0 thao t\u00e1c leo\u0111\u1ed3i v\u1eady (v\u00ec c\u00e0ng ng\u00e0y
ta c\u00e0ng l\u00ean cao h\u01a1n).

Thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i di truy\u1ec1n ho\u1ea1t\u0111\u1ed9ng gi\u1ed1ng leo\u0111\u1ed3i
Tuy nhi\u00ean, ki\u1ec3u gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft n\u00e0y v\u1eabn c\u00f2n g\u1eb7p tr\u1edf ng\u1ea1i c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n l\u00e0, n\u1ebfu v\u00f9ng\u0111\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a ch\u00fang ta c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u\u0111\u1ed3i
nh\u1ecf kh\u00e1c b\u00ean c\u1ea1nh ng\u1ecdn\u0111\u1ed3i cao nh\u1ea5t th\u00ec s\u1ebd c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n c\u1ee7a ch\u00fang ta b\u1ecb "k\u1eb9t"\u1edf m\u1ed9t ng\u1ecdn
\u0111\u1ed3i nh\u1ecf. Do t\u01b0t\u01b0\u1edfng l\u00e0 "c\u00e0ng ng\u00e0y c\u00e0ng l\u00ean cao" n\u00ean khi l\u00ean \u0111\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ec9nh m\u1ed9t ng\u1ecdn \u0111\u1ed3i nh\u1ecft hu\u1eadt to\u00e1n s\u1ebd
kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3\u0111i ti\u1ebfp\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c (v\u00ec kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 l\u00ean cao\u0111 \u01b0\u1ee3c n\u1eefa, mu\u1ed1n t\u00ecm\u0111\u1ebfn m\u1ed9t ng\u1ecdn\u0111\u1ed3i cao h\u01a1n th\u00ec ph\u1ea3i
xu\u1ed1ng\u0111\u1ed3i hi\u1ec7n t\u1ea1i, m\u00e0 xu\u1ed1ng\u0111\u1ed3i th\u00ec kh\u00f4ng\u0111\u00fang t\u01b0 t\u01b0\u1edfng c\u00e0ng ng\u00e0y c\u00e0ng l\u00ean cao).

B\u1ea1n h\u00e3y t\u01b0\u1edfng t\u01b0\u1ee3ng m\u1ed9t m\u00e1y t\u00ednh gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1-b\u00e0i to\u00e1n theo ki\u1ec3u leo\u0111\u1ed3i l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t ng\u01b0\u1eddi leo\u0111\u1ed3i v\u1edbi
t\u01b0 t\u01b0\u1edfng "c\u00e0ng leo c\u00e0ng cao". N\u1ebfu ch\u1ec9 c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t ng\u01b0\u1eddi leo\u0111\u1ed3i th\u00ec c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng ng\u01b0\u1eddi\u0111\u00f3 s\u1ebd b\u1ecb "k\u1eb9t" tr\u00ean
m\u1ed9t\u0111\u1ec9nh\u0111\u1ed3i th\u1ea5p. C\u00f3 l\u1ebd b\u1ea1n\u0111\u00e3\u0111o\u00e1n\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u01b0 t\u01b0\u1edfng ti\u1ebfp theo! Nh\u01b0 v\u1eady, n\u1ebfu c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u ng\u01b0\u1eddi leo\u0111\u1ed3i

c\u00f9ng leo\u1edf nhi\u1ec1u\u0111\u1ecba\u0111i\u1ec3m kh\u00e1c nhau th\u00ec kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t ng\u01b0\u1eddi leo\u0111\u1ebfn\u0111\u1ec9nh n\u00fai cao nh\u1ea5t s\u1ebd cao h\u01a1n. C\u00e0ng nhi\u1ec1u ng\u01b0\u1eddi th\u00ec kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng\u0111\u1ebfn\u0111\u1ec9nh n\u00fai cao nh\u1ea5t s\u1ebd cao h\u01a1n. Nh\u01b0ng t\u01b0 t\u01b0\u1edfng n\u00e0y c\u0169ng ch\u01b0a c\u00f3 g\u00ec m\u1edbi m\u1ebb,\u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n ch\u1ec9 l\u00e0 d\u00f9ng nhi\u1ec1u m\u00e1y t\u00ednh\u0111\u1ec3 chia vi\u1ec7c ra m\u00e0 th\u00f4i. H\u01a1n n\u1eefa, v\u1edbi kh\u00f4ng gian t\u00ecm ki\u1ebfm c\u1ee1 1030 nh\u01b0 b\u00e0i to\u00e1n m\u1edf kh\u00f3a, ch\u00fang ta c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i d\u00f9ng bao nhi\u00eau si\u00eau m\u00e1y t\u00ednh? M\u00e0 quan tr\u1ecdng h\u01a1n n\u1eefa, cho d\u00f9 c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u ng\u01b0\u1eddi leo\u0111\u1ed3i, nh\u01b0ng n\u1ebfu s\u1ed1 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng ng\u01b0\u1eddi leo\u0111\u1ed3i qu\u00e1 \u00edt so v\u1edbi s\u1ed1 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng\u0111\u1ed3i th\u00ec kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 ng\u01b0\u1eddi leo\u0111\u1ed3i\u0111\u1ec1u b\u1ecb "k\u1eb9t" c\u0169ng v\u1eabn c\u00f2n r\u1ea5t cao.

\u0110\u1ebfn \u0111\u00e2y th\u00ec r\u1ea5t c\u00f3 th\u1ec3t r ong \u0111\u1ea7u c\u00e1c b\u1ea1n ch\u1ee3tn\u1ea3y l\u00ean m\u1ed9t \u00fd ngh\u0129.T\u1ea1i sao kh\u00f4ng cho nhi\u1ec1u "th\u1ebfh\u1ec7"
ng\u01b0\u1eddi leo\u0111\u1ed3i? Ngh\u0129a l\u00e0, n\u1ebfu to\u00e0n b\u1ed9 ng\u01b0\u1eddi leo\u0111\u1ed3i\u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean (gi\u1ea3 s\u1eed 1000 ng\u01b0\u1eddi ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n)\u0111\u1ec1u kh\u00f4ng
\u0111\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ec9nh \u0111\u1ed3i cao nh\u1ea5t th\u00ec ta s\u1ebd cho 1000 ng\u01b0\u1eddi leo \u0111\u1ed3i kh\u00e1c ti\u1ebfpt\u1ee5c leo. Tuy nhi\u00ean, s\u1ebdn\u1ea3y sinh m\u1ed9t

v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1, c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng l\u00e0 trong nh\u00f3m ng\u01b0\u1eddi leo\u0111\u1ed3i m\u1edbi, c\u00f3 nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi l\u1ea1i\u0111i leo l\u1ea1i nh\u1eefng ng\u1ecdn\u0111\u1ed3i m\u00e0
nh\u00f3m tr\u01b0\u1edbc\u0111\u00e3 leo r\u1ed3i. B\u1ea1n ngh\u0129 th\u1ebf n\u00e0o? V\u1eady th\u00ec h\u00e3y ghi nh\u1eadn l\u1ea1i nh\u1eefng ng\u1ecdn\u0111\u1ed3i\u0111\u00e3 leo\u0111\u1ec3 nh\u1eefng
nh\u00f3m sau c\u00f2n th\u1eeba h\u01b0\u1edfng\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c k\u1ebft qu\u1ea3 c\u1ee7a nh\u00f3m tr\u01b0\u1edbc. Hay n\u00f3i m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch t\u1ed5ng qu\u00e1t h\u01a1n : h\u00e3y l\u00e0m
sao\u0111\u1ec3 nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi gi\u1ecfi nh\u1ea5t (leo cao nh\u1ea5t) trong s\u1ed1 nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi leo\u0111\u1ed3i\u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean truy\u1ec1n l\u1ea1i "kinh
nghi\u1ec7m" leo\u0111\u1ed3i c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh cho 1000 ng\u01b0\u1eddi th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 sau\u0111\u1ec3 sao cho 1000 ng\u01b0\u1eddi "h\u1eadu du\u1ec7" n\u00e0y s\u1ebd leo cao
h\u01a1n h\u1ecd. V\u00e0 n\u1ebfu 1000 ng\u01b0\u1eddi sau l\u1ea1i th\u1ea5t b\u1ea1i, nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi gi\u1ecfi nh\u1ea5t trong s\u1ed1 h\u1ecd s\u1ebd l\u1ea1i truy\u1ec1n "kinh
nghi\u1ec7m" c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh cho th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 1000 ng\u01b0\u1eddi ti\u1ebfp n\u1eefa\u0111\u1ec3 nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 3 n\u00e0y leo cao h\u01a1n n\u1eefa. Ti\u1ebfn
tr\u00ecnh c\u1ee9 th\u1ebf ti\u1ebfp t\u1ee5c cho\u0111\u1ebfn l\u00fac\u0111\u1ebfn m\u1ed9t th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 n\u00e0o\u0111\u00f3, c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t ng\u01b0\u1eddi leo\u0111\u1ebfn\u0111\u1ec9nh\u0111\u1ed3i cao nh\u1ea5t ho\u1eb7c
h\u1ebft th\u1eddi gian cho ph\u00e9p. Trong tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p h\u1ebft th\u1eddi gian cho ph\u00e9p th\u00ec trong to\u00e0n b\u1ed9 c\u00e1c th\u1ebf h\u1ec7, ng\u01b0\u1eddi
n\u00e0o leo cao nh\u1ea5t s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ecdn.

Th\u1ebf \u0111\u1ea5y, b\u1ea1n\u0111\u00e3 hi\u1ec3u\u0111 \u01b0\u1ee3c t\u01b0 t\u01b0\u1edfng ch\u00ednh c\u1ee7a thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i di truy\u1ec1n r\u1ed3i\u0111\u00f3. R\u1ea5t\u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n, thay v\u00ec ch\u1ec9 ph\u00e1t sinh m\u1ed9t l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i, ban\u0111\u1ea7u ta ph\u00e1t sinh m\u1ed9t l\u00facnhi\u1ec1u (th\u1eadm ch\u00ed r\u1ea5t nhi\u1ec1u) l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i c\u00f9ng l\u00fac. Sau\u0111\u00f3, trong s\u1ed1 l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1ea1o ra, ch\u1ecdn ra nh\u1eefng l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i t\u1ed1t nh\u1ea5t\u0111\u1ec3 l\u00e0m c\u01a1 s\u1edf ph\u00e1t sinh ra nh\u00f3m c\u00e1c l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i sau v\u1edbi nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc "c\u00e0ng v\u1ec1 sau" c\u00e0ng t\u1ed1t h\u01a1n. Qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh ti\u1ebfp di\u1ec5n cho\u0111\u1ebfn l\u00fac t\u00ecm\u0111 \u01b0\u1ee3c m\u1ed9t l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i t\u1ed1i\u01b0u.

\u0110\u00f3 l\u00e0 t\u01b0t\u01b0\u1edfng s\u01a1kh\u1edfi ban \u0111\u1ea7uc\u1ee7a thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i di truy\u1ec1n. C\u00e0ng v\u1ec1 sau, ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta c\u00e0ng ho\u00e0n thi\u1ec7n h\u01a1n

ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p lu\u1eadn c\u1ee7a \u00fd t\u01b0\u1edfng n\u00e0y, d\u1eabn\u0111\u1ebfn s\u1ef1 ra\u0111\u1eddi c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng ho\u00e0n ch\u1ec9nh c\u00e1c ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p,
nguy\u00ean l\u00fd d\u00f9ng trong thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i di truy\u1ec1n. Ng\u01b0\u1eddi c\u00f3 c\u00f4ng\u0111\u1ea7u trong l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c n\u00e0y l\u00e0 gi\u00e1o s\u01b0 John Holland.
\u00d4ng\u0111\u00e3\u0111\u01b0a ra l\u00fd thuy\u1ebft n\u00e0y ti\u00ean trong m\u1ed9t cu\u1ed1n s\u00e1ch mang t\u00ean "Adaptation in Natural and Artificial
Systems", xu\u1ea5t b\u1ea3n n\u0103m 1975. Ph\u1ea7n\u0111\u1ecdc th\u00eam c\u1ee7a ch\u01b0\u01a1ng s\u1ebd cung c\u1ea5p cho c\u00e1c b\u1ea1n\u0111\u1ea7y\u0111\u1ee7 th\u00f4ng tin
v\u1ec1 John Holland.

2. THU\u1eacT GI\u1ea2I DI TRUY\u1ec0N

T\u1eeb ph\u1ea7n n\u00e0y tr\u1edf\u0111i, ch\u00fang ta s\u1ebd c\u00f9ng nhau t\u00ecm hi\u1ec3u thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i di truy\u1ec1n \u2013 m\u1ed9t m\u00f4 h\u00ecnh kh\u00e1 m\u1edbi m\u1ebb, c\u00f3
nhi\u1ec1u\u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng h\u1ea5p d\u1eabn v\u00e0 v\u1eabn\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ti\u1ebfp t\u1ee5c nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u tr\u00ean kh\u1eafp th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi \u2013 thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i cho ph\u00e9p
ch\u00fang ta t\u1ea1o ra\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nh\u1eefng ch\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh m\u00e1y t\u00ednh c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng t\u1ef1 l\u1eadp tr\u00ecnh cho ch\u00ednh n\u00f3.

Thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i di truy\u1ec1n (GA) l\u00e0 k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt chung gi\u00fap gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1-b\u00e0i to\u00e1n b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch m\u00f4 ph\u1ecfng s\u1ef1 ti\u1ebfn
h\u00f3a c\u1ee7a con ng\u01b0\u1eddi hay c\u1ee7a sinh v\u1eadt n\u00f3i chung (d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean thuy\u1ebft ti\u1ebfn h\u00f3a mu\u00f4n lo\u00e0i c\u1ee7a Darwin) trong
\u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n qui \u0111\u1ecbnh s\u1eb5nc\u1ee7a m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng. GA l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i, ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 m\u1ee5c ti\u00eau c\u1ee7a GA kh\u00f4ng nh\u1eb1m \u0111\u01b0a
ra l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i ch\u00ednh x\u00e1c t\u1ed1i\u01b0u m\u00e0 l\u00e0\u0111\u01b0a ra l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i t\u01b0\u01a1ng\u0111\u1ed1i t\u1ed1i\u01b0u.

Trong c\u00e1c t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u v\u1ec1 GA, ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta th\u01b0\u1eddng\u0111\u1ec1 c\u1eadp\u0111\u1ebfn hai thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef l\u00e0 "thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i di truy\u1ec1n" v\u00e0 "l\u1eadp tr\u00ecnh
di truy\u1ec1n". Theo c\u00e1c t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u n\u00e0y, "thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i di truy\u1ec1n" ch\u1ec9 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac d\u1eef li\u1ec7u l\u00e0 chu\u1ed7i s\u1ed1 nh\u1ecb ph\u00e2n
c\u00f2n "l\u1eadp tr\u00ecnh di truy\u1ec1n" ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac d\u1eef li\u1ec7u t\u1ed5ng qu\u00e1t. S\u1edf d\u0129 c\u00f3 c\u00e1ch hi\u1ec3u nh\u01b0 th\u1ebf v\u00ec \u00fd
ni\u1ec7m thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i di truy\u1ec1n xu\u1ea5t hi\u1ec7n tr\u01b0\u1edbc v\u00e0 ban\u0111\u1ea7u ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta ch\u1ec9 \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng n\u00f3 v\u1edbi c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac d\u1eef li\u1ec7u l\u00e0
chu\u1ed7i nh\u1ecb ph\u00e2n. V\u1ec1 sau, ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta m\u1edbi\u0111\u01b0a ra c\u00e1ch \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i n\u00e0y tr\u00ean c\u00e1c c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac d\u1eef li\u1ec7u t\u1ed5ng
qu\u00e1t h\u01a1n n\u00ean g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 l\u1eadp tr\u00ecnh di truy\u1ec1n. Theo ch\u00fang t\u00f4i, trong t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u n\u00e0y, ch\u00fang t\u00f4i quan ni\u1ec7m r\u1eb1ng,
"thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i di truy\u1ec1n" l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1-b\u00e0i to\u00e1n b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch m\u00f4 ph\u1ecfng qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh ti\u1ebfn
h\u00f3a-th\u00edch nghi c\u1ee7a sinh v\u1eadt. C\u00f2n "l\u1eadp tr\u00ecnh di truy\u1ec1n" l\u00e0 k\u1ef9 thu\u1eadt l\u1eadp tr\u00ecnh s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng "thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i di truy\u1ec1n"

\u0111\u1ec3gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1-b\u00e0i to\u00e1n tr\u00ean m\u00e1y t\u00ednh. Do \u0111\u00f3, khi n\u00f3i \u0111\u1ebfn "thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i di truy\u1ec1n" ch\u00fang ta ch\u1ec9l\u01b0u t\u00e2m
\u0111\u1ebfn kh\u00eda c\u1ea1nh thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i m\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng quan t\u00e2m \u0111\u1ebfn vi\u1ec7c c\u00e0i \u0111\u1eb7t n\u00f3 ra sao. Ng\u01b0\u1ee3cl\u1ea1i, khi n\u00f3i \u0111\u1ebfn "l\u1eadp tr\u00ecnh
di truy\u1ec1n" ta quan t\u00e2m nhi\u1ec1u h\u01a1n\u0111\u1ebfn vi\u1ec7c c\u00e0i\u0111\u1eb7t.

Theo\u0111\u1ec1 xu\u1ea5t ban\u0111\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a gi\u00e1o s\u01b0 John Holland, m\u1ed9t v\u1ea5n\u0111\u1ec1-b\u00e0i to\u00e1n\u0111\u1eb7t ra s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u00e3 h\u00f3a th\u00e0nh c\u00e1c
chu\u1ed7i bit v\u1edbi chi\u1ec1u d\u00e0i c\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ecbnh. N\u00f3i m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch ch\u00ednh x\u00e1c l\u00e0 c\u00e1c th\u00f4ng s\u1ed1 c\u1ee7a b\u00e0i to\u00e1n s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chuy\u1ec3n\u0111\u1ed5i
v\u00e0 bi\u1ec3u di\u1ec5n l\u1ea1i d\u01b0\u1edbi d\u1ea1ng c\u00e1c chu\u1ed7i nh\u1ecb ph\u00e2n. C\u00e1c th\u00f4ng s\u1ed1 n\u00e0y c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0 c\u00e1c bi\u1ebfn c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t h\u00e0m ho\u1eb7c
h\u1ec7 s\u1ed1 c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t bi\u1ec3u th\u1ee9c to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc. Ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta g\u1ecdi c\u00e1c chu\u1ed7i bit n\u00e0y l\u00e0 m\u00e3g e no me\u1ee9ng v\u1edbi m\u1ed7i c\u00e1 th\u1ec3, c\u00e1c
genome\u0111\u1ec1u c\u00f3 c\u00f9ng chi\u1ec1u d\u00e0i. N\u00f3i ng\u1eafn g\u1ecdn, m\u1ed9t l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c bi\u1ec3u di\u1ec5n b\u1eb1ng m\u1ed9t chu\u1ed7i bit, c\u0169ng
gi\u1ed1ng nh\u01b0 m\u1ed7i c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ec1u\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c quy\u0111\u1ecbnh b\u1eb1ng gen c\u1ee7a c\u00e1 th\u1ec3\u0111\u00f3 v\u1eady. Nh\u01b0 v\u1eady,\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi thu\u1eadt gi\u1ea3i di
truy\u1ec1n, m\u1ed9t c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 ch\u1ec9 c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t gen duy nh\u1ea5t v\u00e0 m\u1ed9t gen c\u0169ng ch\u1ec9 ph\u1ee5c v\u1ee5 cho m\u1ed9t c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 duy nh\u1ea5t. Do\u0111\u00f3,
gen ch\u00ednh l\u00e0 c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 v\u00e0 c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 ch\u00ednh l\u00e0 gen n\u00ean ta s\u1ebd d\u00f9ng l\u1eabn l\u1ed9n thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef gen v\u00e0 c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 t\u1eeb\u0111\u00e2y v\u1ec1 sau.

Ban\u0111\u1ea7u, ta s\u1ebd ph\u00e1t sinh m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng l\u1edbn, gi\u1edbi h\u1ea1n c\u00e1c c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 c\u00f3 gen ng\u1eabu nhi\u00ean - ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 ph\u00e1t sinh
m\u1ed9t t\u1eadp h\u1ee3p c\u00e1c chu\u1ed7i bit ng\u1eabu nhi\u00ean. T\u1eadp c\u00e1c c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 n\u00e0y\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 qu\u1ea7n th\u1ec3 ban\u0111\u1ea7u (initial
population). Sau\u0111\u00f3, d\u1ef1a tr\u00ean m\u1ed9t h\u00e0m n\u00e0o\u0111\u00f3, ta s\u1ebd x\u00e1c\u0111\u1ecbnh\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c m\u1ed9t gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb g\u1ecdi l\u00e0\u0111\u1ed9 th\u00edch nghi -
Fitness. Gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb n\u00e0y, \u0111\u1ec3 \u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n cho b\u1ea1n\u0111\u1ecdc l\u00fac\u0111\u1ea7u, c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 t\u1ea1m hi\u1ec3u ch\u00ednh l\u00e0\u0111\u1ed9 "t\u1ed1t" c\u1ee7a l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i hay

\u0111\u1ed9 cao trong t\u00ecm ki\u1ebfm theo ki\u1ec3u leo \u0111\u1ed3i. V\u00ec ph\u00e1t sinh ng\u1eabu nhi\u00ean n\u00ean \u0111\u1ed9"t\u1ed1t" c\u1ee7al\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i hay t\u00ednh th\u00edch
nghi c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 trong qu\u1ea7n th\u1ec3 ban\u0111\u1ea7u l\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng x\u00e1c\u0111\u1ecbnh.
\u0110\u1ec3c\u1ea3i thi\u1ec7n t\u00ednh th\u00edch nghi c\u1ee7a qu\u1ea7n th\u1ec3, ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta t\u00ecm c\u00e1ch t\u1ea1o ra qu\u1ea7n th\u1ec3m\u1edbi. C\u00f3 hai thao t\u00e1c th\u1ef1c
hi\u1ec7n tr\u00ean th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 hi\u1ec7n t\u1ea1i\u0111\u1ec3 t\u1ea1o ra m\u1ed9t th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 kh\u00e1c v\u1edbi\u0111\u1ed9 th\u00edch nghi t\u1ed1t h\u01a1n.

Thao t\u00e1c\u0111\u1ea7u ti\u00ean l\u00e0 sao ch\u00e9p nguy\u00ean m\u1eabu m\u1ed9t nh\u00f3m c\u00e1c c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 t\u1ed1t t\u1eeb th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 tr\u01b0\u1edbc r\u1ed3i\u0111\u01b0a sang th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 sau (selection). Thao t\u00e1c n\u00e0y\u0111\u1ea3m b\u1ea3o\u0111\u1ed9 th\u00edch nghi c\u1ee7a th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 sau lu\u00f4n\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c gi\u1eef\u1edf m\u1ed9t m\u1ee9c\u0111\u1ed9 h\u1ee3p l\u00fd. C\u00e1c c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ecdn th\u00f4ng th\u01b0\u1eddng l\u00e0 c\u00e1c c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 c\u00f3\u0111\u1ed9 th\u00edch nghi cao nh\u1ea5t.

Thao t\u00e1c th\u1ee9 hai l\u00e0 t\u1ea1o c\u00e1c c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 m\u1edbi b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n c\u00e1c thao t\u00e1c sinh s\u1ea3n tr\u00ean m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 c\u00e1 th\u1ec3
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ecdnt\u1eebt h\u1ebfh\u1ec7t r\u01b0\u1edbc \u2013 th\u00f4ng th\u01b0\u1eddng c\u0169ng l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng c\u00e1 th\u1ec3c\u00f3 \u0111\u1ed9 th\u00edch nghi cao. C\u00f3 hai lo\u1ea1i thao
t\u00e1c sinh s\u1ea3n : m\u1ed9t l\u00e0 lai t\u1ea1o t\u00e1c lai t\u1ea1o (crossover), hai l\u00e0\u0111\u1ed9t bi\u1ebfn (mutation). Trong thao t\u00e1c lai t\u1ea1o, t\u1eeb
gen c\u1ee7a hai c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ecdn trong th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 tr\u01b0\u1edbc s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u1ed1i h\u1ee3p v\u1edbi nhau (theo m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 quy t\u1eafc n\u00e0o
\u0111\u00f3) \u0111\u1ec3t\u1ea1o th\u00e0nh hai gen m\u1edbi.
Thao t\u00e1c ch\u1ecdn l\u1ecdc v\u00e0 lai t\u1ea1o gi\u00fap t\u1ea1o ra th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 sau. Tuy nhi\u00ean, nhi\u1ec1u khi do th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 kh\u1edfi t\u1ea1o ban\u0111\u1ea7u c\u00f3
\u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh ch\u01b0a phong ph\u00fa v\u00e0 ch\u01b0a ph\u00f9 h\u1ee3p n\u00ean c\u00e1c c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 kh\u00f4ng r\u1ea3i \u0111\u1ec1u \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c h\u1ebft kh\u00f4ng gian c\u1ee7a b\u00e0i
to\u00e1n (t\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1ef1 nh\u01b0 tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p leo\u0111\u1ed3i, c\u00e1c ng\u01b0\u1eddi leo\u0111\u1ed3i t\u1eadp trung d\u1ed3n v\u00e0o m\u1ed9t g\u00f3c tr\u00ean v\u00f9ng\u0111\u1ea5t). T\u1eeb
\u0111\u00f3, kh\u00f3 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 t\u00ecm ra l\u1eddi gi\u1ea3i t\u1ed1i \u01b0u cho b\u00e0i to\u00e1n. Thao t\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed9t bi\u1ebfn s\u1ebd gi\u00fap gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3cv\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1n\u00e0y.
\u0110\u00f3 l\u00e0 s\u1ef1bi\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ed5i ng\u1eabu nhi\u00ean m\u1ed9t ho\u1eb7c nhi\u1ec1u th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n gen c\u1ee7am\u1ed9t c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 \u1edft h\u1ebfh\u1ec7tr\u01b0\u1edbct\u1ea1o ra m\u1ed9t

c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 ho\u00e0n to\u00e0n m\u1edbi\u1edf th\u1ebf th\u1ec7 sau. Nh\u01b0ng thao t\u00e1c n\u00e0y ch\u1ec9 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e9p x\u1ea3y ra v\u1edbi t\u1ea7n su\u1ea5t r\u1ea5t th\u1ea5p
(th\u01b0\u1eddng d\u01b0\u1edbi 0.01), v\u00ec thao t\u00e1c n\u00e0y c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 g\u00e2y x\u00e1o tr\u1ed9n v\u00e0 l\u00e0m m\u1ea5t\u0111i nh\u1eefng c\u00e1 th\u1ec3\u0111\u00e3 ch\u1ecdn l\u1ecdc v\u00e0 lai
t\u1ea1o c\u00f3 t\u00ednh th\u00edch nghi cao, d\u1eabn\u0111\u1ebfn thu\u1eadt to\u00e1n kh\u00f4ng c\u00f2n hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3.

Th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 m\u1edbi\u0111 \u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1ea1o ra l\u1ea1i\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c x\u1eed l\u00fd nh\u01b0 th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 tr\u01b0\u1edbc (x\u00e1c\u0111\u1ecbnh\u0111\u1ed9 th\u00edch nghi v\u00e0 t\u1ea1o th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 m\u1edbi) cho
\u0111\u1ebfn khi c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t c\u00e1 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ea1t \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c gi\u1ea3i ph\u00e1p mong mu\u1ed1n ho\u1eb7c \u0111\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ebfn th\u1eddi gian gi\u1edbi h\u1ea1n.
S\u01a0 \u0110\u1ed2 T\u1ed4NG QU\u00c1T C\u1ee6A THU\u1eacT GI\u1ea2I DI TRUY\u1ec0N

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