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Abstract Algebra Done Concretely

# Abstract Algebra Done Concretely

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06/05/2014

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Abstract Algebra done Concretely
Donu ArapuraFebruary 19, 2004

Introduction:
I wrote these notes for my math 453 class since I couldn’tﬁnd a book that covered basic abstract algebra with the level and emphasis thatI wanted. Rather than spending a lot of time on axiomatics and serious theoremproving, I wanted to spend more time with examples, simple applications andwith making scenic detours. I may have gotten a bit carried away with thedetours, and certainly there is more here than can be covered in a semester ata reasonable pace. However, a lot of these side topics (which I marked with astar) can be skipped to save time. In order to try to encourage students to playaround with examples, I tried to include some Maple code now and then. Butits role is secondary and it can be ignored without losing too much. Also sinceI wanted to emphasize the mathematics rather than the algorithms, I didn’t goout of my way to implement these things eﬃciently.If you ﬁnd typos or more serious errors, send me email.- Donu Arapura (dvb@math.purdue.edu)1

Contents
1 Natural Numbers 5
1.4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2 Principles of Counting 9
2.7 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3 Integers and Abelian groups 12
3.11 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4 Divisibility 17
4.4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5 Congruences 19
5.4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6 Linear Diophantine equations 22
6.7 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
7 Subgroups of Abelian groups 25
7.10 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
8 Commutative Rings 28
8.8 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
9 A little Boolean Algebra* 32
9.3 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
10 Fields 35
10.12Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
11 Polynomials over a Field 37
11.11Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
12 Quotients of Abelian groups 41
12.7 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422