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Abstract Algebra

Abstract Algebra

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Published by The Math Magazine
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Published by: The Math Magazine on Jun 05, 2014
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06/05/2014

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 Algebra Math Notes
• Study Guide
 
 Abstract Algebra
Table of Contents
[
]
 
1
 
Rings
1-1
 
Rings
 A
ring
 
 is a set with the operations of
addition
 (+) and
multiplication
 (
×
) satisfying: 1. R is an abelian group
+
 under addition. 2. Multiplication is associative. In a commutative ring, multiplication is commutative. A ring with identity has a multiplicative identity 1. 3. Distributive law:
 +
 =

 +

,
 +
 =

 +

  A left/ right
zero divisor 
 is an element
 so that there exists
 0
 with

 = 0,

 = 0
, respectively. A commutative ring without zero divisors is an
integral domain
. A ring is a
division ring
 if
{0}
 is a multiplicative group under multiplication (inverses exist). A division ring is a
field
 if the multiplicative group is abelian.
Ex. of Rings:
 
,
[
]
 (the ring of polynomials in x, where R is a ring),
[
1
,
,
]
 Note: A field is a UFD, though not a very interesting one. Basic properties: 1.
0 = 0
 = 0
 2.
−
 =
−
 =
(

)
 3. The multiplicative identity 1 is unique (if it exists). 4. A multiplicative inverse is unique if it exists. 5. If R is not the zero ring {0}, then
1
 0
. Group G  Abelian group Ring R Commutative ring Ring with identity Integral domain Division ring Field F Principal ideal domain (PID) Euclidean domain Unique factorization domain (UFD)

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