This ENERGIE publication is one of a series highlighting the potential for innovative non-nuclear energytechnologies to be applied widely and contribute to provision of superior services. European Commission strategiesaim to influence the scientific and engineering communities, policy makers and key market actors so that theydevelop and apply cleaner, more efficient and more sustainable energy solutions to benefit themselves and societyin general.Funded under the European Union’s Fifth Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development andDemonstration (RTD), ENERGIE’s range of supports cover research, development, demonstration, dissemination,replication and market uptake - the full process of converting new ideas into practical solutions to real needs. Itsprint and electronic publications disseminate the results of activities carried out under current and previousFramework Programmes, including former JOULE-THERMIE actions. Jointly managed by the Directorates-GeneralResearch and Energy & Transport, ENERGIE has a total budget of
1042 million for 1999 to 2002.ENERGIE is organised principally around two Key Actions,
(Cleaner Energy Systems, including Renewable Energies,
Economic and Efficient Energy for a Competitive Europe),
within the theme “Energy, Environment andSustainable Development”. With targets guided by the Kyoto Protocol and associated policies, ENERGIE’sintegrated activities are focussed on new solutions which achieve balanced improvements in Europe’s energy,environmental and economic performance and thereby contribute towards a sustainable future for Europe’scitizens.
with the support of the EUROPEAN COMMISSIONDirectorate-General Energy & TransportAcknowledgements
We would like to thank the following who supplied valuable information for this publication:
Case study material:
Anke Benstem, KUKA (Kronsberg Environmental Liaison Agency), Germany; Cathie Curran, Richard Rogers Partnership, UK; ChristineOehlinger, O.Ö. Energiesparverband, Austria.
Photographs and diagrams:
Alfanso Sevilla, Geohabitat, Almeria, Spain; Tjeerd Deelstra, Ministry of Housing, The Hague, Amsterdam; Marylene Ferrand,FFL Architectes, France; Bill Hastings, ARC Survey, Ireland; Jaime Lopez de Asiain, ETS de Arquitectura de Seville, Spain; Maurice Stack, Architect, Ireland; DerryO’Connell, John Goulding, Brian O’Brien and Crea O’Dowd, University College Dublin, Ireland; International Dark Sky Association.
Philip Geoghegan, Derry O’Connell, University College Dublin, Ireland.
Neither the European Commission, nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission,is responsible for the use which might be made of the information contained in this publication.The views given in this publication do not necessarily represent the views of the European Commission.Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.Printed in Ireland 2000
Produced byEnergy Research Group, University College Dublin,School of Architecture, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14, IrelandTel: + 353.1-269 2750, Fax: +353.1-283 8908WWW: http://erg.ucd.ie/, E-mail: email@example.com
Written by: Vivienne Brophy, Crea O’Dowd,Rachel Bannon, John Goulding and J. Owen LewisDesign: Sinéad McKeon and Pierre Jolivet