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Digital Signal Processing
Prepared By
Engr. Alexander Cabatit
Why do we need to study DSP?

1. There is a lot of competition for top jobs after college
graduation, and hands-on DSP experience will
differentiate you from other graduates.

2. DSP technology is used in cellular phones, hard disk
drives, motors, global positioning systems, modems,
wireless basestations, GPS-capable personal digital
assistants, network routers, hearing aids, anti-lock
brakes, and much more! DVD and digital cameras are
becoming increasingly popular.

3. DSP is the fastest-growing segment of the
semiconductor market.
4. The change from conventional analog Broadcasting to
Digital Broadcasting (HDTV)
DSP Development

Digital Signal Processing is relatively new
developing for the past several years due
computer technology and integrated circuit (IC)
fabrication starting from:

1. MSI (medium scale integration)
2. LSI (Large scale integration)

3. VLSI (Very large scale integration) with
powerful, smaller, faster and cheaper digital
computers and special purpose digital

Possibilities and Limitations

Inexpensive and relatively fast digital circuit have made it
possible to construct highly sophisticated digital systems
capable of performing complex digital signal processing
functions and task. Some signals with extremely wide
bandwidths or real-time processing requiring. Analog or
optical signal processing is the only possible solution for
such signals.

The subject DSP is limited to the signals that are being
processed from analog to digital and vice versa.
DSP (Signals)
1. Signal\u2013 A single valued function of time that conveys

information. Is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space, or any other independent variable(s). As a norm, a signal carries information and the objective of signal processing is to extract this information.

2. Spectra\u2013 Describes the frequency content of the signal.
3. Signal Processing\u2013 is extracting information from a
signal and conditioning a signal for subsequent use,
signal transformation, or altering a signal structure.
4. Systems\u2013 is a process or method or plant that can

manipulate, change, or transmit signals. They operate on signals to produce new signals or new signal representation. As a whole, it may be defined as an integrated unit composed of diverse, interacting structures to perform a desired task. The main function of a system is to process a given input sequence to generate an output sequence.

Digital signal processing (DSP)-

\u2022 is the study of signals in a digital
representation and the processing
methods of these signals. DSP and analog
signal processing are subfields of signal
processing. DSP has three major
subfields: audio signal processing, digital
image processing and speech processing.

Two types of Signal
Analog- A signal with amplitude that varies continuously for all

time (amplitude and time at their respective signals).
Analog signals are continuous time signals. v(t) has a value
to each instant of amplitude or value of t

Digital - Discrete time interval signals that is quantized and then

coded. Digital can be done by sampling a continuous time
signal at isolated, equally spaced points in time. The result
is a sequence of numbers that can be represented as a
function of an index variable that takes on only discrete
values. The signal remains to be an analog signal until it is
coded then it becomes a digital signal.

Advantages of using digital over analog

1. Digital circuits do not rely on precise values of digital signals
for their operation. Less sensitive to changes in the
component values. Less sensitive to variations in
temperature, ageing and other external parameters

2. In a digital processor, the signal and systems coefficients
are represented in binary words. This enables one to
choose any accuracy by increasing or decreasing the
number of bits in the binary word. Tolerances in analog
circuit components make it difficult to control the accuracy
of an analog processing system. Digital signal processor
provides much better control of accuracy requirements.
Accuracy requirement in the A/D Converting.\u2022Tolerance in

analog circuit components make it extremely difficult for the
system designer to control the accuracy of an analog
processing system

3. Digital Processing of a signal facilitates sharing of a single processor among a number of signals by timesharing. This reduces the processing cost per signal.


4. Digital implementation of a system allows easy adjustment
of the processor characteristics during processing. Allows
flexibility in reconfiguring the digital signal process operation
by simply changing the program. For analog usually implies
changing the hardware. Adjustment in the processor
characteristics can be easily done by periodically changing
the coefficients of the algorithm representing the processor
characteristics. These adjustments are necessary in
adaptive filters and allows implementation of more complex
signal processing algorithms.Reconfiguration of an analog

system requires redesign of hardware.

5. A major advantage of digital signals over analog is the use of digital filters to produce linear phase characteristics and multi-rate processing. Digital circuits can be connected in cascade without loading problems, whereas this cannot be done easily with analog circuits.

6. Storage of digital data is very easy. Signals can be stored in various storage media without any loss, distortion, or loss of signal fidelity. On the other hand, analog signals deteriorate

rapidly as time progress and cannot be recovered in their
original form.

7. Storage of digital data is very easy. Signals can be stored in various storage media without any loss, distortion, or loss of signal fidelity. On the other hand, analog signals deteriorate

rapidly as time progress and cannot be recovered in their
original form.

8. For processing very low frequency signals like seismic
signals, analog require inductors and capacitors of a very
large size whereas, digital processing does not and is more
suited for such applications.

9. In some cases, digital implementation is much cheaper than
analog systems.

10. Digital processing hardware allows programmable
operations, so be can easily modify and flexibility in system
design. A digital programmable system allows flexibility in
reconfiguring the digital signal processing operations simply
by changing the program

11. Digital signal processing can allow more sophisticated
signal processing algorithms. It is difficult to perform precise
mathematical operations on signals in analog operations
Disadvantages of digital processing:

1. Digital processing needs pre and post processing devices
like analog to digital and digital to analog converters and
associated reconstruction filters. This increases the
complexity of the digital system and additional cost. But at
present, digital circuits are now cheaper and more reliable. In
many cases a digital implementation of the signal processing
system is cheaper than analog implementation.

2. Digital systems suffer from frequency limitations or speed of
application. For reconstructing a sampled signal the sampling
frequency must be at least twice the highest frequency
component present in the signal. The available frequency
range of operation for a digital signal processor is primarily
dependent on the sample and hold circuit and the analog to
digital converter and as a result limited by the technology

Overall, the advantages out weight the disadvantages and as
time progress, the cost of DSP is decreasing

Important Categories of DSP
Signal Analysis:Deals with the measurement of signal

properties. It is generally a frequency-domain operations.
Some of its applications: (1) Spectrum analysis, (2) Speech
recognition, (3) Speaker verification, (4) Target detection

Signal Filtering:This task is characterized by the \u201csignal in-

signal out\u201d situation. It is usually time domain operation. Some of its applications: (1) Remove of unwanted background noise, (2) Remove of interference, (3) Separation of frequency band, (4) Shaping of the signal spectrum

Classification of Signals
1. Multichannel\u2013 signals are generated by multiple sources or
multiple sensors and can be represented in vector form.
2. Multi-dimensional\u2013 A signal that is represented by a single

independent variable, the signal is called a one-dimensional signal. M-dimensional if its value is a function of M independent variables.

3. Continues time signal x(t)\u2013is a mathematically continues
function Periodic signals v(t) and that function is called
continues in the time domain.
4. Discrete-time signal x(n)\u2013is a signal specified only at
specific time instants. The amplitude of the discrete-time signal
between two time instants is no zero but is just not defined.
The smallest value of N is called the fundamental period.
Deterministic signal- Is a signal that has certainty with respect to

its value at any time. They are functions that are completely
specified in time such that the nature and amplitude of the signal
can be predicted at any time. The pattern of the signal is regular
and can be characterized mathematically.

x(t) =\u03b1(t) \u2013 Ramp function
x(t) = A sin wt
Non-deterministic Signalsor random signals\u2013 is a signal

whose occurrence is random in nature and its pattern is quite
irregular. A typical example is thermal noise in an electrical
circuit. Or the number of accidents in a year. One cannot exactly
predict what would be the figure. Uncertainty of the value of the
signal before its actual occurrence.

7. Periodic Signals \u2013A continues signal is said to be periodic
if it exhibits periodically,
x(t) = x(t + To), -\u221e < t <\u221e
Where: t \u2013 denotes the signal location
To\u2013 Is a constant. Defines the duration of

one complete cycle V(t) or the period of the signal. The
smallest value of T that satisfies the equation. A
periodic signal has a definite pattern that repeats over
and over, with a repetition period of To

8. Non-periodic (Aperiodic signal) - Any signal for which
there is no value ofTo to satisfy the mathematical condition
stated for periodic signals.
Note that a sinusoid signals can be obtained by adding 2 equal
amplitude complex exponential signals called phasors.
Positive frequency \u2013 counter clockwise angular motion
Negative frequency \u2013 clockwise angular motion

the sum of two or more periodic continuous time signals need
not be periodic. They will be periodic if and only if the ratio of
their fundamental periods is rational. In order to determine
whether the sum of two or more periodic signals is periodic
or not, the following steps may be used to test:

1. Determine the fundamental period of the individual signals in
the sum signal.
2. Find the ratio of the fundamental period of the first signal
with the fundamental periods of every other signal.
3. If all the ratios are rational, then the sum signal is also

4. In the case of discrete time signals, the sum of the number
of periodic signals is always periodic because the ratio of
individual periods is always a ratio of integers, which is

9. Even Signals \u2013If a signal exhibits symmetry in the time

domain that is the signal must be identical to its
reflection about the origin. Mathematically, an even
signal satisfies the following:

For continues time signals
x(t) = x(-t)
For a discrete signal
x(n) = x(-n)
10. Odd Signals\u2013 The signal is not identical to its reflection

about the origin, but to its negative. Exhibits anti-
symmetry. It satisfies the following conditions

For continues time signals
x(t) = -x (-t)
For a discrete signal
x(n) = -x (-n)
x1(t) sin\u03c9t and x2(t) cos\u03c9t are good examples of odd and
even signals.

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