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1

Digital Signal Processing

EC363

Prepared By

Engr. Alexander Cabatit

2

Why do we need to study DSP?

1. There is a lot of competition for top jobs after college

graduation, and hands-on DSP experience will

differentiate you from other graduates.

2. DSP technology is used in cellular phones, hard disk

drives, motors, global positioning systems, modems,

wireless basestations, GPS-capable personal digital

assistants, network routers, hearing aids, anti-lock

brakes, and much more! DVD and digital cameras are

becoming increasingly popular.

3. DSP is the fastest-growing segment of the

semiconductor market.

4. The change from conventional analog Broadcasting to

Digital Broadcasting (HDTV)

3

DSP Development

Digital Signal Processing is relatively new

developing for the past several years due

computer technology and integrated circuit (IC)

fabrication starting from:

1. MSI (medium scale integration)

2. LSI (Large scale integration)

3. VLSI (Very large scale integration) with

powerful, smaller, faster and cheaper digital

computers and special purpose digital

hardware.

4

Possibilities and Limitations

Inexpensive and relatively fast digital circuit have made it

possible to construct highly sophisticated digital systems

capable of performing complex digital signal processing

functions and task. Some signals with extremely wide

bandwidths or real-time processing requiring. Analog or

optical signal processing is the only possible solution for

such signals.

The subject DSP is limited to the signals that are being

processed from analog to digital and vice versa.

ANALOG

DIGITAL

DSP (Signals)

5

Definitions

1. Signal\u2013 A single valued function of time that conveys

information. Is defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space, or any other independent variable(s). As a norm, a signal carries information and the objective of signal processing is to extract this information.

2. Spectra\u2013 Describes the frequency content of the signal.

3. Signal Processing\u2013 is extracting information from a

signal and conditioning a signal for subsequent use,

signal transformation, or altering a signal structure.

4. Systems\u2013 is a process or method or plant that can

manipulate, change, or transmit signals. They operate on signals to produce new signals or new signal representation. As a whole, it may be defined as an integrated unit composed of diverse, interacting structures to perform a desired task. The main function of a system is to process a given input sequence to generate an output sequence.

6

Digital signal processing (DSP)-

\u2022 is the study of signals in a digital

representation and the processing

methods of these signals. DSP and analog

signal processing are subfields of signal

processing. DSP has three major

subfields: audio signal processing, digital

image processing and speech processing.

2

7

Two types of Signal

Analog- A signal with amplitude that varies continuously for all

time (amplitude and time at their respective signals).

Analog signals are continuous time signals. v(t) has a value

to each instant of amplitude or value of t

Digital - Discrete time interval signals that is quantized and then

coded. Digital can be done by sampling a continuous time

signal at isolated, equally spaced points in time. The result

is a sequence of numbers that can be represented as a

function of an index variable that takes on only discrete

values. The signal remains to be an analog signal until it is

coded then it becomes a digital signal.

8

Advantages of using digital over analog

1. Digital circuits do not rely on precise values of digital signals

for their operation. Less sensitive to changes in the

component values. Less sensitive to variations in

temperature, ageing and other external parameters

2. In a digital processor, the signal and systems coefficients

are represented in binary words. This enables one to

choose any accuracy by increasing or decreasing the

number of bits in the binary word. Tolerances in analog

circuit components make it difficult to control the accuracy

of an analog processing system. Digital signal processor

provides much better control of accuracy requirements.

Accuracy requirement in the A/D Converting.\u2022Tolerance in

analog circuit components make it extremely difficult for the

system designer to control the accuracy of an analog

processing system

3. Digital Processing of a signal facilitates sharing of a single processor among a number of signals by timesharing. This reduces the processing cost per signal.

9

4. Digital implementation of a system allows easy adjustment

of the processor characteristics during processing. Allows

flexibility in reconfiguring the digital signal process operation

by simply changing the program. For analog usually implies

changing the hardware. Adjustment in the processor

characteristics can be easily done by periodically changing

the coefficients of the algorithm representing the processor

characteristics. These adjustments are necessary in

adaptive filters and allows implementation of more complex

signal processing algorithms.Reconfiguration of an analog

system requires redesign of hardware.

5. A major advantage of digital signals over analog is the use of digital filters to produce linear phase characteristics and multi-rate processing. Digital circuits can be connected in cascade without loading problems, whereas this cannot be done easily with analog circuits.

6. Storage of digital data is very easy. Signals can be stored in various storage media without any loss, distortion, or loss of signal fidelity. On the other hand, analog signals deteriorate

rapidly as time progress and cannot be recovered in their

original form.

10

7. Storage of digital data is very easy. Signals can be stored in various storage media without any loss, distortion, or loss of signal fidelity. On the other hand, analog signals deteriorate

rapidly as time progress and cannot be recovered in their

original form.

8. For processing very low frequency signals like seismic

signals, analog require inductors and capacitors of a very

large size whereas, digital processing does not and is more

suited for such applications.

9. In some cases, digital implementation is much cheaper than

analog systems.

10. Digital processing hardware allows programmable

operations, so be can easily modify and flexibility in system

design. A digital programmable system allows flexibility in

reconfiguring the digital signal processing operations simply

by changing the program

11. Digital signal processing can allow more sophisticated

signal processing algorithms. It is difficult to perform precise

mathematical operations on signals in analog operations

11

Disadvantages of digital processing:

1. Digital processing needs pre and post processing devices

like analog to digital and digital to analog converters and

associated reconstruction filters. This increases the

complexity of the digital system and additional cost. But at

present, digital circuits are now cheaper and more reliable. In

many cases a digital implementation of the signal processing

system is cheaper than analog implementation.

2. Digital systems suffer from frequency limitations or speed of

application. For reconstructing a sampled signal the sampling

frequency must be at least twice the highest frequency

component present in the signal. The available frequency

range of operation for a digital signal processor is primarily

dependent on the sample and hold circuit and the analog to

digital converter and as a result limited by the technology

available.

Overall, the advantages out weight the disadvantages and as

time progress, the cost of DSP is decreasing

continuously.

12

Important Categories of DSP

Signal Analysis:Deals with the measurement of signal

properties. It is generally a frequency-domain operations.

Some of its applications: (1) Spectrum analysis, (2) Speech

recognition, (3) Speaker verification, (4) Target detection

Signal Filtering:This task is characterized by the \u201csignal in-

signal out\u201d situation. It is usually time domain operation. Some of its applications: (1) Remove of unwanted background noise, (2) Remove of interference, (3) Separation of frequency band, (4) Shaping of the signal spectrum

3

13

Classification of Signals

1. Multichannel\u2013 signals are generated by multiple sources or

multiple sensors and can be represented in vector form.

2. Multi-dimensional\u2013 A signal that is represented by a single

independent variable, the signal is called a one-dimensional signal. M-dimensional if its value is a function of M independent variables.

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14

3. Continues time signal x(t)\u2013is a mathematically continues

function Periodic signals v(t) and that function is called

continues in the time domain.

4. Discrete-time signal x(n)\u2013is a signal specified only at

specific time instants. The amplitude of the discrete-time signal

between two time instants is no zero but is just not defined.

The smallest value of N is called the fundamental period.

15

5.

Deterministic signal- Is a signal that has certainty with respect to

its value at any time. They are functions that are completely

specified in time such that the nature and amplitude of the signal

can be predicted at any time. The pattern of the signal is regular

and can be characterized mathematically.

x(t) =\u03b1(t) \u2013 Ramp function

x(t) = A sin wt

6.

Non-deterministic Signalsor random signals\u2013 is a signal

whose occurrence is random in nature and its pattern is quite

irregular. A typical example is thermal noise in an electrical

circuit. Or the number of accidents in a year. One cannot exactly

predict what would be the figure. Uncertainty of the value of the

signal before its actual occurrence.

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16

7. Periodic Signals \u2013A continues signal is said to be periodic

if it exhibits periodically,

x(t) = x(t + To), -\u221e < t <\u221e

Where: t \u2013 denotes the signal location

To\u2013 Is a constant. Defines the duration of

one complete cycle V(t) or the period of the signal. The

smallest value of T that satisfies the equation. A

periodic signal has a definite pattern that repeats over

and over, with a repetition period of To

8. Non-periodic (Aperiodic signal) - Any signal for which

there is no value ofTo to satisfy the mathematical condition

stated for periodic signals.

Note that a sinusoid signals can be obtained by adding 2 equal

amplitude complex exponential signals called phasors.

\u2022

Positive frequency \u2013 counter clockwise angular motion

\u2022

Negative frequency \u2013 clockwise angular motion

17

Note:

the sum of two or more periodic continuous time signals need

not be periodic. They will be periodic if and only if the ratio of

their fundamental periods is rational. In order to determine

whether the sum of two or more periodic signals is periodic

or not, the following steps may be used to test:

1. Determine the fundamental period of the individual signals in

the sum signal.

2. Find the ratio of the fundamental period of the first signal

with the fundamental periods of every other signal.

3. If all the ratios are rational, then the sum signal is also

periodic.

4. In the case of discrete time signals, the sum of the number

of periodic signals is always periodic because the ratio of

individual periods is always a ratio of integers, which is

rational.

18

9. Even Signals \u2013If a signal exhibits symmetry in the time

domain that is the signal must be identical to its

reflection about the origin. Mathematically, an even

signal satisfies the following:

For continues time signals

x(t) = x(-t)

For a discrete signal

x(n) = x(-n)

10. Odd Signals\u2013 The signal is not identical to its reflection

about the origin, but to its negative. Exhibits anti-

symmetry. It satisfies the following conditions

mathematically:

For continues time signals

x(t) = -x (-t)

For a discrete signal

x(n) = -x (-n)

x1(t) sin\u03c9t and x2(t) cos\u03c9t are good examples of odd and

even signals.

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