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Track Following Robot

Track Following Robot

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Published by: antozyy on Nov 21, 2009
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10/21/2011

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1.INTRODUCTION1.1EMBEEDED SYSTEM:
An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to perform oneor a few dedicated functions, often with real-time computing constraints. It is usuallyembedded as part of a complete device including software and hardware parts. In contrast, ageneral-purpose computer, such as a personal computer, can do many different tasksdepending on programming. Embedded systems have control many of the common devicesin use today.Embedded system is dedicated to do specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it,reducing the size and cost of the product, or increasing the reliability and performance. Someembedded systems are mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale.Physically, embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watchesand MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, or thesystems controlling nuclear power plants. Complexity varies from low, with a singlemicrocontroller chip, to very high with multiple units, peripherals and networks mountedinside a large chassis or enclosure.In general, "embedded system" is not an exactly defined term, as many systems havesome element of programmability. For example, Handheld computers share some elementswith embedded systems such as the operating systems and microprocessors which power them are not truly embedded systems, because they allow different applications to be loadedand peripherals to be connected.
 
1.2 ROBOTICS:
A robot is a virtual or mechanical artificial agent. In practice, it is usually an electro-mechanical system which, by its appearance or movements, conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own. The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots. There is no consensus on which machines qualify asrobots, but there is general agreement among experts and the public that robots tend to do someor all of the following: move around, operate a mechanical limb, sense and manipulate their environment, and exhibit intelligent behavior, especially behavior which mimics humans or other animals.
1.3 TRACK FOLLOWING ROBOT:
The line follower is a self operating robot that detects and follows a line that is drawn onthe floor. The path consists of a black line on a white surface (or vice versa). The control systemused must sense a line and maneuver the robot to stay on course, while constantly correcting thewrong moves using feedback mechanism, thus forming a simple yet effective closed loopSystem. The robot is designed to follow very tight curves. The robot initializes in seek mode,where it searches for a black line to track. Wheel synchronization, during seek mode, allows therobot to travel in a straight line without guidance. Once a black line is found, the robot tracks theline.Sensing a line and maneuvering the robot to stay on course, while constantly correctingwrong moves using feedback mechanism forms a simple yet effective closed loop system.Practical applications of a line follower: Automated cars running on roads with embeddedmagnets; guidance system for industrial robots moving on shop floor etc.
 
1.4 OBJECTIVE:
The aim of the line following robot is to search for a black line on the terrain. Once theline is found, the robot tracks the line from end to end. Four infrared sensors have been mountedunder the robot and connected to the port of the AT89C51 do line sensing. The line follower is aclassic introductory robot design and requires a minimal amount of resources. These linefollower robots can use microcontroller or simple digital or analog control systems and arehighly visual and entertaining to watch. A great event for reprogrammed Mini-Sumos.
1.5 MOTIVATION:
As we are searching for a project using microcontroller for an automated machine, wefound this project. The usage of sensor, relay and microcontroller motivated us to do this project.Here the sensors are used to steer the wheel of this track following robot a writing program onmicrocontroller for this stipulated task is very interesting. The working method of track follower,the role played by the IR sensor and microcontroller motivated us to do this project.

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