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Is the incidence of cryptorchidism increasing?
Risk Factors
Testicular development
Testicular descent
Germ cell maturation
Abnormal gonadotropins in cryptorchid infants and boys
Defective onset of meiosis at 4-5 yo?
Impact on Fertility
Incidence of Azospermia
Abnormal germ cell deveopment
Boys < 1 yo
Boys 2-9 yo
Abnormal Epididymal Growth
Increased risk of neoplasia
Neoplasia & cryptorchidism
Hormonal Therapy
Confounding Variables in Data
hCG vs GnRH: multicenter trial
A review & meta-analysis of hormonal treatment of cryptorchidism (Pyorala 1995)
Review & meta-analysis
Long term outcomes
Combined GnRH and hCG
4 different regimes
Bertelloni 2001 cont
When to treat?
Impact of age on treatment success
When to operate?
Is further treatment after surgery indicated?
Erythropoietin and germ cells
Possible mechanisms
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Crypt Orchid is m

Crypt Orchid is m

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Published by Lili Uisa Rahmasari

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Categories:Types, Graphic Art
Published by: Lili Uisa Rahmasari on Jun 07, 2014
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved


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