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Internet Standards

Internet Standards

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Published by rekxy
CISCO2 k31... Internet standards reviewer...
CISCO2 k31... Internet standards reviewer...

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Published by: rekxy on Nov 22, 2009
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CISCO2 – Discovery 2Chapter 1
INTERNET STANDARDS
 The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network of networks.It enables individuals and businesses alike, through interconnected computer networks,to share information, resources, and services.
In the beginning, the Internet was used strictly for scientific, educational, andmilitary research.
In 1991, regulations changed to allow businesses and consumers to connect aswell. The Internet has grown rapidly, and is now global.
New technologies are continuously being developed that make the Interneteasier and more attractive to use.
Online applications are available to the Internet user, including email, webbrowsing, streaming music and video, online gaming, and instant messaging.
 The way people interact, share information, and even do business is changing tokeep up with the continuous evolution of this global network.
 The Internet is creating a wider audience and consumer base for whatevermessage, product or service can be delivered.
For many businesses, having Internet access has become critical, not only forcommunication, but also just for day-to-day operation. Some of the business usesof the Internet include:
E-Commerce
-
Refers to the business that can be conducted over the web. Thisincludes webspace for advertisements, brochures, catalogs, aswell as ordering and distribution services. Companies can sellproducts and services over the internet from their own websites, through an auction sites or affiliated web sites.
Communications-Refers to electronic method of communication, such as the useof email, instant messaging, and online chat. In addition manybusinesses use internal phone system that operates over theinternet using IP phones and Voice over IP (VoIP) technology toreduce phone cost.
Collaboration and Training-Refers to creating environments that allows for sharing of documents, presentations and spreadsheets. Allows for virtualteams of people to work together from remote locations forbusiness and virtual training purposes. Example includes: videoconferencing, virtual meeting places, virtual classrooms, onlinelearning, online bulletin boards, FTP sites and passwordprotected databases and applications.With the increasing number of new devices and technologies coming online, how is itpossible to manage all the changes and still reliably deliver services such as email? Theanswer is
Internet standards
.A standard is a set of rules for how something must be done.
Networking and Internet standards ensure that all devices connecting to the network use the same set of rules
.
 
CISCO2 – Discovery 2Chapter 1
By having standards, it is possible for different types of devices to send informationto each other over the Internet. For example, the way an email is formatted,forwarded, and received by all devices is done in a standardized manner. If oneindividual sends an email via a personal computer, another individualcan use a mobile phone to receive and read the e-mail as long as the mobile phoneuses the same standards.An
Internet standard
is the end result of a comprehensive cycle of discussion,problem solving, and testing.
When a new standard is proposed, each stage of the development and approvalprocess is recorded in a numbered Request for Comments (RFC) document sothat the evolution of the standard is tracked.
 There are thousands of Internet standards that help define the rules for howdevices communicate on networks.
 These different standards are developed, published, and maintained by a varietyof different organizations.
By these organizations creating and maintaining standards, millions of individualsare able to connect to the Internet using a variety of devices including personalcomputers, cellular phones, handheld personal digital assistants (PDAs), MP3players, and even televisions.
ISP AND ISP SERVICES
Regardless of the type of device that an individual or business uses to connect to theInternet, the device must connect through an Internet service provider (ISP).An
ISP
is a company or organization through which a subscriber obtains Internetaccess.A
subscriber
can be a business, a private consumer, a government body, or evenanother ISP.In addition to offering connection to the Internet, an ISP can offer other services tosubscribers including:
Equipment co-location
- A business may opt to have some or all internalnetwork equipment physically located on the ISP premises.
Web hosting
- The ISP provides the server and application software forstoring web pages and web content for the business website.
FTP hosting
- The ISP provides the server and application software forthe FTP site of a business.
Applications and media hosting
- The ISP provides the server andsoftware to allow a business to provide streaming media such as music, video orapplications, such as online databases.
Voice over IP
- A business can save on long distance telephone charges,especially for internal calls between geographically distant offices, by usingVoice over IP (VoIP).
Technical support
- Many businesses do not have the in-house technicalexpertise to manage large internal networks. Some ISPs provide technicalsupport and consulting services for an additional fee.
DELIVERING INTERNET SERVICES TO END USERS
 To gain access to the Internet, it is first necessary to have a connection to an ISP.
 
CISCO2 – Discovery 2Chapter 1
ISPs offer various connection options. The main connection methods used by home and small business users are:
Dialup access
o
Dialup access is an inexpensive option that uses any phone line and amodem.
o
 To connect to the ISP, a user calls the ISP access phone number.
o
Dialup is the slowest connection option, and is typically used by mobileworkers and in areas where higher speed connection options are notavailable.
o
With access speeds around 56 Kbps dialup access is the slowestconnection option. For example, downloading a 5MB file using a 56 kbpsdialup connection will take approximately twelve minutes.
DSL
o
DSL is more expensive than dialup, but provides a faster connection.
o
DSL also uses telephone lines, but unlike dialup access, DSL provides acontinuous connection to the Internet.
o
 This connection option uses a special high-speed modem that separatesthe DSL signal from the telephone signal and provides an Ethernetconnection to a host computer or LAN.
o
DSL is a broadband technology that provides high-speed digitaltransmission at speeds from 512 Kbps and higher. If you were connectedat 512Kbps a 5MB file would download in approximately one minute.Upload and download speeds vary based on geography, distance from theISP and ISP services available.
o
 There are many different flavors of DSL. Typically a home user would use
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL),
where the downloadspeed is higher than the upload speed. Another type of DSL service iscalled
Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line(SDSL),
where the uploadspeed and the download speed are equal.
Cable modem
o
A cable modem is a connection option offered by cable television serviceproviders.
o
 The Internet signal is carried on the same coaxial cable that delivers cabletelevision to homes and businesses.
o
A special cable modem separates the Internet signal from the othersignals carried on the cable and provides an Ethernet connection to a hostcomputer or LAN.
o
Cable is also a broadband technology with speeds similar to DSL.Depending on location and ISP, cable service can be purchased from512Kbps and higher. Unlike DSL, the performance of cable is not affectedby the distance from the ISP. Cable is a shared bandwidth service so asmore customers in an area connect and use the internet, the speed isaffected.
Satellite
o
Satellite connection is an option offered by satellite service providers.
o
 The user's computer connects through Ethernet to a satellite modem thattransmits radio signals to the nearest POP within the satellite network.
o
Satellite internet access speed range from 128 Kbps to 512 Kbpsdepending on the subscriber plan.

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