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Khái niệm lý luận

Khái niệm lý luận

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Published by api-19476528

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Published by: api-19476528 on Nov 22, 2009
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03/18/2014

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Trang ch\u1ee7 >Suy ng\u1eabm >V\u1ec1 Nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c
Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn
L\u01b0u H\u00e0 V\u0129
T\u1ea1p ch\u00ed Tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc

05:43' PM
- Th\u1ee9 hai,
04/12/2006

\u1ede t\u1ea7m kh\u00e1i qu\u00e1t, vi\u1ec7c ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m trong c\u00e1c s\u00e1ch gi\u00e1o khoa
logic h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c x\u01b0a nay th\u01b0\u1eddng d\u1eebng l\u1ea1i d\u01b0\u1edbi m\u1ea5y g\u00f3c \u0111\u1ed9:

1. Ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i theo ngo\u1ea1i di\u00ean, g\u1ed3m c\u00f3:
Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m chung (v\u00f4 h\u1ea1n v\u00e0 h\u1eefu h\u1ea1n).
Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m ri\u00eang (\u0111\u01a1n nh\u1ea5t).
Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m r\u1ed7ng (tr\u1ed1ng).
Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m h\u1ee3p (t\u1eadp h\u1ee3p).

2. Ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i theo n\u1ed9i h\u00e0m, g\u1ed3m c\u00f3:
Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m c\u1ee5 th\u1ec3 v\u00e0 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m tr\u1eebu t\u01b0\u1ee3ng.
Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m kh\u1eb3ng \u0111\u1ecbnh (\u0111\u01b0\u01a1ng) v\u00e0 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m ph\u1ee7 \u0111\u1ecbnh (\u00e2m).
Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m tuy\u1ec7t \u0111\u1ed1i v\u00e0 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u0111\u1ed1i.

3. Ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i d\u01b0\u1edbi g\u00f3c \u0111\u1ed9 quan h\u1ec7 gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m, g\u1ed3m c\u00f3:
Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m so s\u00e1nh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c.
Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m kh\u00f4ng so s\u00e1nh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c.

4. Ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i d\u01b0\u1edbi g\u00f3c \u0111\u1ed9 ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i h\u1ecdc, g\u1ed3m c\u00f3:
Ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i t\u1ef1 nhi\u00ean.
Ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i b\u1ed5 tr\u1ee3 (nh\u00e2n t\u1ea1o).
Theo ch\u00fang t\u00f4i, ngo\u00e0i m\u1ea5y g\u00f3c \u0111\u1ed9 ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i truy\u1ec1n th\u1ed1ng n\u00e0y, c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 v\u00e0
c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i b\u1ed5 sung v\u00e0o c\u00e1c s\u00e1ch gi\u00e1o khoa logic h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c m\u1ed9t g\u00f3c \u0111\u1ed9
n\u1eefa h\u1ebft s\u1ee9c quan tr\u1ecdng v\u00e0 c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft \u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i theo chi\u1ec1u s\u00e2u nh\u1eadn
th\u1ee9c v\u1edbi hai c\u1ea5p \u0111\u1ed9: kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m kinh nghi\u1ec7m v\u00e0 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn.

\u0110\u01b0\u1ee3c bi\u1ebft t\u00e1c gi\u1ea3 V\u01b0\u01a1ng T\u1ea5t \u0110\u1ea1t t\u1eebng b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 th\u00e0nh c\u00f4ng Lu\u1eadn \u00e1n Ti\u1ebfn
s\u0129 tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc v\u1ec1 \u0111\u1ec1 t\u00e0i Vai tr\u00f2 c\u1ee7a kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn. \u0110\u00e1ng ti\u1ebfc, kh\u00f4ng
hi\u1ec3u v\u00ec sao t\u00e1c gi\u1ea3 \u0111\u00e3 kh\u00f4ng b\u1ed5 sung v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn n\u00e0y v\u00e0o
cu\u1ed1n s\u00e1ch logic h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c vi\u1ebft sau khi b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7 lu\u1eadn \u00e1n (\u0110\u1ea1i h\u1ecdc S\u01b0 ph\u1ea1m
H\u00e0 N\u1ed9i I ph\u00e1t h\u00e0nh th\u00e1ng 4/1994). Ch\u00fang ta \u0111\u1ec1u bi\u1ebft, t\u1eeb khi khoa h\u1ecdc
xu\u1ea5t hi\u1ec7n v\u00e0o kho\u1ea3ng hai ngh\u00ecn r\u01b0\u1edfi n\u0103m qua, trong t\u01b0 duy lo\u00e0i ng\u01b0\u1eddi
c\u00f9ng t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i hai c\u1ea5p \u0111\u1ed9 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m \u0111\u1ec3 ph\u1ea3n \u00e1nh c\u00e1c s\u1ef1 v\u1eadt, hi\u1ec7n t\u01b0\u1ee3ng
v\u1edbi hai t\u1ea7m n\u00f4ng - s\u00e2u kh\u00e1c nhau v\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 nh\u1ea7m l\u1eabn \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c - kh\u00e1i
ni\u1ec7m kinh nghi\u1ec7m v\u00e0 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn.

Trong cu\u1ed1n logic h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh (xu\u1ea5t b\u1ea3n 4 l\u1ea7n t\u1ea1i Nxb Ch\u00ednh tr\u1ecb Qu\u1ed1c gia, t\u1eeb 1996 \u0111\u1ebfn
1999), t\u00f4i \u0111\u00e3 m\u1ea1nh d\u1ea1n b\u1ed5 sung v\u00e0o ph\u1ea7n ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m v\u1edbi s\u1ef1 ph\u00e2n bi\u1ec7t kh\u00e1i qu\u00e1t gi\u1eefa hai
Th\u00f4ng tin li\u00ean quan:
\ue000 T\u01b0 t\u01b0\u1edfng H\u1ed3 Ch\u00ed Minh

v\u1ec1 th\u1ed1ng nh\u1ea5t gi\u1eefa l\u00fd
lu\u1eadn v\u00e0 th\u1ef1c ti\u1ec5n nh\u1eb1m
kh\u1eafc ph\u1ee5c b\u1ec7nh kinh

nghi\u1ec7m v\u00e0 b\u1ec7nh gi\u00e1o \u0111i\u1ec1u
[28/04/2007]
\ue000
Gia\u0301cu\u0309a tri th\u01b0\u0301c
[23/02/2007]
\ue000Ph.\u0102ngghen b\u00e0n v\u1ec1
nh\u1eefng \u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n h\u00ecnh
th\u00e0nh t\u01b0 duy l\u00fd lu\u1eadn
[14/12/2006]
\ue000Tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc - h\u1ea1t nh\u00e2n l\u00fd
lu\u1eadn c\u1ee7a th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi kh\u00e1ch
quan [2 7 / 1 0/ 2 0 0 6 ]
\ue000
T\u1ed5ng - t\u00edch h\u1ee3p l\u00fd
thuy\u1ebft - m\u1ed9t \u0111\u00f3ng g\u00f3p
quan tr\u1ecdng cho ti\u1ebfn tr\u00ecnh
ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n t\u01b0 duy l\u00fd lu\u1eadn
[16/09/2006]
\ue000
H\u00e0 Xu\u00e2n Tr\u01b0\u1eddng: M\u1ed9t
nh\u00e0 l\u00fd lu\u1eadn - th\u1ef1c ti\u1ec5n
[29/06/2006]
\ue000C\u1ea7n \u0111\u1ed5i m\u1edbi c\u00f4ng t\u00e1c
l\u00fd lu\u1eadn[01/ 06/ 2006]
\ue000
T\u1ea5t y\u1ebfu v\u00e0 t\u1ef1 do - m\u1ed9t
s\u1ed1 v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 l\u00fd lu\u1eadn v\u00e0 th\u1ef1c
ti\u1ec5n [3 0 / 0 3/ 2 0 0 6 ]
\ue000L\u00fd lu\u1eadn - ph\u00ea b\u00ecnh v\u0103n
h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 c\u00e1c \u201cv\u1ea5n n\u1ea1n\u201d
[27/03/2006]
\ue000\u0110\u1ed5i m\u1edbi tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc trong
qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh \u0111\u1ed5i m\u1edbi ho\u1ea1t
\u0111\u1ed9ng l\u00fd lu\u1eadn \u1edf n\u01b0\u1edbc ta
[13/03/2006]
\ue000K\u1ebft h\u1ee3p gi\u00e1o d\u1ee5c l\u00fd
lu\u1eadn v\u1edbi gi\u00e1o d\u1ee5c l\u00fd t\u01b0\u1edfng
\u0111\u1ea1o \u0111\u1ee9c, cho sinh vi\u00ean
hi\u1ec7n nay[18/ 11/ 2005]
kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m n\u00e0y theo chi\u1ec1u s\u00e2u nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c nh\u01b0 sau:

a. Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m kinh nghi\u1ec7m l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m h\u00ecnh th\u00e0nh t\u1ef1 ph\u00e1t v\u00e0 g\u1eafn li\u1ec1n tr\u1ef1c ti\u1ebfp v\u1edbi kinh
nghi\u1ec7m s\u1ed1ng c\u1ee7a m\u1ecdi ng\u01b0\u1eddi, kh\u00f4ng c\u1ea7n qua h\u1ecdc t\u1eadp - nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u. Do \u0111\u00f3, kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m kinh nghi\u1ec7m
mang n\u1eb7ng t\u00ednh ch\u1ea5t c\u1ea3m t\u00ednh, ch\u01b0a \u0111i s\u00e2u ph\u1ea3n \u00e1nh b\u1ea3n ch\u1ea5t v\u00e0 c\u00e1c m\u1ed1i li\u00ean h\u1ec7 t\u1ea5t y\u1ebfu b\u00ean trong
c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed1i t\u01b0\u1ee3ng. V\u00ed d\u1ee5: nh\u00e0, ch\u1ee3, c\u00e2y, con, t\u00ecnh y\u00eau, c\u0103m th\u00f9...

b. Kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m h\u00ecnh th\u00e0nh g\u1eafn li\u1ec1n v\u1edbi nh\u1eefng c\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u l\u00fd
lu\u1eadn c\u1ee7a nh\u1eefng nh\u00e0 nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u l\u00fd lu\u1eadn. C\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn g\u1eafn li\u1ec1n v\u1edbi nh\u1eefng h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng l\u00fd
lu\u1eadn nh\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ecbnh. N\u1ebfu ch\u00fang ph\u1ea3n \u00e1nh trung th\u1ef1c c\u00e1c m\u1ed1i li\u00ean h\u1ec7 b\u1ea3n ch\u1ea5t, c\u00e1c quy lu\u1eadt v\u1ed1n c\u00f3 c\u1ee7a
hi\u1ec7n th\u1ef1c kh\u00e1ch quan th\u00ec nh\u1eefng h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng l\u00fd lu\u1eadn \u0111\u00f3 ch\u00ednh l\u00e0 c\u00e1c h\u1ecdc thuy\u1ebft khoa h\u1ecdc \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ki\u1ec3m
nghi\u1ec7m b\u1eb1ng th\u1ef1c ti\u1ec5n (hay th\u1ef1c nghi\u1ec7m). N\u1ebfu tr\u00e1i l\u1ea1i, th\u00ec \u0111\u00f3 ch\u1ec9 l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng l\u00fd lu\u1eadn gi\u1ea3 khoa h\u1ecdc v\u00e0
s\u1edbm mu\u1ed9n c\u0169ng s\u1ebd b\u1ecb s\u1ef1 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n c\u1ee7a khoa h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 th\u1ef1c ti\u1ec5n b\u00e1c b\u1ecf.

Thi\u1ebft ngh\u0129, b\u1ed5 sung nh\u01b0 v\u1eady kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n ch\u1ec9 l\u00e0 b\u1ed5 sung m\u1ed9t ti\u1ec3u ti\u1ebft cho th\u00eam ph\u1ea7n phong
ph\u00fa trong ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m. Ch\u00ednh c\u00e1i g\u00f3c \u0111\u1ed9 hay "l\u00e1t c\u1eaft" ti\u1ebfp c\u1eadn c\u1eb7p kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m theo chi\u1ec1u
n\u00f4ng - s\u00e2u n\u00e0y t\u1ef1 n\u00f3 \u0111\u00e3 mang \u00fd ngh\u0129a tuy\u1ec7t \u0111\u1ed1i c\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 thi\u1ebft \u0111\u1ec3 ti\u1ebfp c\u1eadn v\u00e0 "ti\u00eau ho\u00e1" b\u1ea5t k\u1ef3 m\u1ed9t
kh\u00e1i ni\u00eam n\u00e0o v\u1edbi t\u01b0 c\u00e1ch m\u1ed9t kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m h\u00e3y c\u00f2n \u1edf t\u1ea7m kinh nghi\u1ec7m hay \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u1ea1t t\u1edbi t\u1ea7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn.
Th\u1eadt ra, v\u1edbi qu\u1ef9 th\u1eddi gian \u00edt \u1ecfi c\u00f9ng v\u1edbi y\u00eau c\u1ea7u khi\u00eam t\u1ed1n b\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u1ea7u \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi m\u00f4n h\u1ecdc logic h\u00ecnh
th\u1ee9c \u0111\u00e0nh cho sinh vi\u00ean n\u00f3i chung, vi\u1ec7c th\u00f4ng tin cho sinh vi\u00ean v\u1ec1 m\u1ed9t kho\u1ea3ng c\u00e1ch c\u00f3 th\u1eadt v\u00e0
\u0111\u1ea7y \u00fd ngh\u0129a gi\u1eefa kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m kinh nghi\u1ec7m v\u00e0 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn nh\u01b0 v\u1eady ch\u1ec9 mang t\u00ednh ch\u1ea5t kh\u00e1i
qu\u00e1t. Song, suy ng\u1eabm cho k\u1ef9, ch\u00fang ta kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 kh\u00f4ng ghi nh\u1eadn gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p lu\u1eadn to l\u1edbn
v\u00e0 s\u00e2u s\u1eafc c\u1ee7a c\u00e1ch ti\u1ebfp c\u1eadn theo hai c\u1ea5p \u0111\u1ed9 n\u00f4ng - s\u00e2u n\u00e0y \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m, \u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t l\u00e0 v\u1edbi
kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn. B\u1edfi l\u1ebd, m\u1ed9t khi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ti\u1ebfp c\u1eadn t\u1edbi chu\u1ea9n m\u1ef1c b\u1ea3n ch\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a n\u00f3, v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m
l\u00fd lu\u1eadn c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 n\u00f3i l\u00e0 xuy\u00ean th\u1ea5m v\u00e0 chi ph\u1ed1i t\u01b0 duy logic (t\u1eeb logic h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c t\u1edbi logic bi\u1ec7n ch\u1ee9ng)
v\u00e0 qua \u0111\u00f3, chi ph\u1ed1i ng\u00e0y c\u00e0ng m\u1ea1nh m\u1ebd b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch n\u00e0y hay c\u00e1ch kh\u00e1c m\u1ecdi ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c
v\u00e0 th\u1ef1c ti\u1ec5n c\u1ee7a \u0111\u1eddi s\u1ed1ng x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i \u0111\u01b0\u01a1ng th\u1eddi.

Trong khu\u00f4n kh\u1ed5 m\u1ed9t b\u00e0i vi\u1ebft ng\u1eafn, t\u00f4i mu\u1ed1n nh\u1ea5n m\u1ea1nh m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 kh\u00eda c\u1ea1nh v\u1eeba c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n, v\u1eeba n\u00f3ng
h\u1ed5i t\u00ednh th\u1eddi s\u1ef1 c\u1ee7a v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 n\u00eau ra.

Th\u1ee9 nh\u1ea5t, v\u1edbi t\u01b0 c\u00e1ch l\u00e0 h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n th\u1ee9 nh\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a t\u01b0 duy tr\u1eebu t\u01b0\u1ee3ng, kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c hi\u1ec3u l\u00e0
h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c ph\u1ea3n \u00e1nh kh\u00e1i qu\u00e1t b\u1ea3n ch\u1ea5t c\u00e1c s\u1ef1 v\u1eadt, hi\u1ec7n t\u01b0\u1ee3ng b\u1eb1ng nh\u1eefng d\u1ea5u hi\u1ec7u b\u1ea3n ch\u1ea5t x\u00e1c
\u0111\u1ecbnh c\u1ee7a ch\u00fang. R\u00f5 r\u00e0ng, kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c khoa h\u1ecdc logic di\u1ec5n \u0111\u1ea1t nh\u01b0 v\u1eady th\u00ec kh\u00f4ng c\u00f2n \u1edf t\u1ea7m
kinh nghi\u1ec7m n\u1eefa, m\u00e0 c\u0103n b\u1ea3n \u0111\u00e3 v\u01b0\u01a1n t\u1edbi t\u1ea7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn - khoa h\u1ecdc r\u1ed3i. \u0110\u00fang nh\u01b0 nh\u1eadn x\u00e9t x\u00e1c
\u0111\u00e1ng c\u1ee7a nh\u00e0 logic h\u1ecdc X\u00f4 vi\u1ebft \u0110.P.Gorxki r\u1eb1ng: "Ph\u00e2n bi\u1ec7t nh\u1eefng s\u1ef1 v\u1eadt v\u00e0 hi\u1ec7n t\u01b0\u1ee3ng kh\u00e1c
nhau l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5 c\u0103n b\u1ea3n c\u1ee7a \u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a..." v\u00e0 \u00f4ng l\u01b0u \u00fd ngay, "\u1edf \u0111\u00e2y, mu\u1ed1n n\u00f3i \u0111\u1ebfn nh\u1eefng
\u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a khoa h\u1ecdc\u201d.

Khi L\u00eanin tri\u1ebft l\u00fd r\u1eb1ng, "kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00e0 s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m cao nh\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a t\u01b0 duy", th\u00ec kh\u00f4ng ai tu\u1ef3 ti\u1ec7n coi \u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m b\u1ea5t k\u1ef3 c\u1ee7a t\u01b0 duy b\u1ea5t k\u1ef3, m\u00e0 ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m \u0111\u1ea1t t\u1edbi t\u1ea7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn \u0111\u1eb7c tr\u01b0ng cho t\u01b0 duy l\u00fd lu\u1eadn.

\u0110\u01b0\u01a1ng nhi\u00ean, cu\u1ed9c s\u1ed1ng th\u00ec v\u1eabn l\u00e0 cu\u1ed9c s\u1ed1ng.D\u00f9 l\u00fd lu\u1eadn ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n t\u1edbi \u0111\u00e2u, k\u1ec3 t\u1eeb khi c\u00f3 khoa h\u1ecdc,
v\u1eabn lu\u00f4n t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i s\u1ef1 \u201cchung s\u1ed1ng ho\u00e0 b\u00ecnh" gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m khoa h\u1ecdc v\u1edbi c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m kinh
nghi\u1ec7m. Ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch gi\u00e1o khoa v\u1ec1 duy v\u1eadt l\u1ecbch s\u1eed \u0111\u00e3 ghi nh\u1eadn hai c\u1ea5p \u0111\u1ed9 n\u00f4ng - s\u00e2u c\u1ee7a \u00fd th\u1ee9c x\u00e3
h\u1ed9i n\u00f3i chung l\u00e0 \u00fd th\u1ee9c \u0111\u1eddi th\u01b0\u1eddng (t\u1ee9c t\u00e2m l\u00fd x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i) v\u00e0 \u00fd th\u1ee9c l\u00fd lu\u1eadn (h\u1ec7 t\u01b0 t\u01b0\u1edfng). V\u1eady th\u00ec

ch\u1eb3ng ph\u1ea3i tranh c\u00e3i l\u00e0m khi kh\u1eb3ng \u0111\u1ecbnh c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m kinh nghi\u1ec7m thu\u1ed9c ph\u1ea1m tr\u00f9 \u00fd th\u1ee9c \u0111\u1eddi
th\u01b0\u1eddng v\u00e0 c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn thu\u1ed9c ph\u1ea1m tr\u00f9 \u00fd th\u1ee9c l\u00fd lu\u1eadn. V\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 \u0111\u1eb7t ra cho logic h\u1ecdc l\u00e0,
c\u1ea7n s\u1edbm ghi nh\u1eadn s\u1ef1 ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i hai d\u1ea1ng kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m kinh nghi\u1ec7m v\u00e0 kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn. H\u01a1n n\u1eefa,
ph\u1ea3i c\u00f3 nh\u01b0ng n\u1ed7 l\u1ef1c t\u1ed5ng h\u1ee3p c\u1ee7a c\u1ea3 l\u00f4gic h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c l\u1eabn logic bi\u1ec7n ch\u1ee9ng \u0111\u1ec3 g\u00f3p ph\u1ea7n \u0111\u1ecbnh
h\u01b0\u1edbng \u0111\u1eafc l\u1ef1c cho t\u01b0 duy con ng\u01b0\u1eddi t\u1eebng b\u01b0\u1edbc v\u01b0\u1ee3t qua gi\u1edbi h\u1ea1n c\u1ee7a t\u01b0 duy kinh nghi\u1ec7m (\u0111\u1eb7c
tr\u01b0ng cho t\u01b0 duy truy\u1ec1n th\u1ed1ng c\u1ee7a v\u0103n minh n\u00f4ng nghi\u1ec7p - ti\u1ec1n t\u01b0 b\u1ea3n), ph\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ea5u v\u01b0\u01a1n l\u00ean t\u01b0 duy
l\u00fd lu\u1eadn (g\u1eafn li\u1ec1n v\u1edbi v\u0103n minh c\u00f4ng nghi\u1ec7p v\u00e0 h\u1eadu c\u00f4ng nghi\u1ec7p).

Th\u1ee9 hai, c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 nhi\u1ec1u g\u00f3c \u0111\u1ed9 ph\u00e2n lo\u1ea1i kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m kh\u00e1c, trong nhi\u1ec1u tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p, s\u1ef1 ph\u00e2n bi\u1ec7t
gi\u1eefa kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m kinh nghi\u1ec7m v\u1edbi kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn ch\u1ec9 l\u00e0 t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u0111\u1ed1i. C\u00f3 \u0111i\u1ec1u l\u00e0, x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i c\u00e0ng ti\u1ebfn
t\u1edbi v\u0103n minh v\u00e0 hi\u1ec7n \u0111\u1ea1i - t\u1ee9c c\u00e0ng \u0111\u00f2i h\u1ecfi con ng\u01b0\u1eddi t\u1ef1 gi\u00e1c, th\u00ec kho\u1ea3ng c\u00e1ch gi\u1eefa kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m
kinh nghi\u1ec7m v\u1edbi kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn, trong nhi\u1ec1u tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p, c\u0169ng ng\u00e0y c\u00e0ng r\u00fat ng\u1eafn. Th\u1eadt kh\u00f4ng
bi\u1ec7n ch\u1ee9ng ch\u00fat n\u00e0o n\u1ebfu \u0111\u1ed3ng nh\u1ea5t m\u1ecdi kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m kinh nghi\u1ec7m v\u1edbi sai l\u1ea7m (c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 v\u1edbi ch\u00fa
ngh\u0129a kinh nghi\u1ec7m) v\u00e0 m\u1ecdi kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn v\u1edbi ch\u00e2n l\u00fd. Tr\u01b0\u1edbc sau, ti\u00eau chu\u1ea9n c\u1ee7a nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c
n\u00f3i chung, c\u1ee7a ch\u00e2n l\u00fd n\u00f3i ri\u00eang v\u1eabn l\u00e0 th\u1ef1c ti\u1ec5n sinh \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a \u0111\u1eddi s\u1ed1ng x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i.

Th\u1ee9 ba, kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ed3ng nh\u1ea5t m\u1ecdi kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn v\u1edbi ch\u00e2n l\u00fd v\u00ec b\u1ea3n th\u00e2n kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn c\u00f2n
c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 v\u00e0 c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e2n ra th\u00e0nh hai d\u1ea1ng (\u0111\u01b0\u01a1ng nhi\u00ean, trong nhi\u1ec1u tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ee3p, c\u0169ng l\u00e0
t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u0111\u1ed1i) - d\u1ea1ng kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn ch\u00e2n ch\u00ednh - khoa h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 d\u1ea1ng kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn gi\u1ea3 t\u1ea1o -
ph\u1ea3n khoa h\u1ecdc. Th\u1ef1c kh\u00f3 m\u00e0 h\u00ecnh dung h\u1ebft c\u00e1i gi\u00e1 ph\u1ea3i tr\u1ea3 cho s\u1ef1 l\u1eabn l\u1ed9n gi\u1eefa b\u1ea3n t\u00ednh ch\u00e2n
ch\u00ednh - khoa h\u1ecdc v\u1edbi b\u1ea3n t\u00ednh gi\u1ea3 t\u1ea1o - ph\u1ea3n khoa h\u1ecdc \u1edf c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn, v\u00e0 c\u0169ng kh\u00f3 m\u00e0
h\u00ecnh dung c\u00e1i gi\u00e1 ph\u1ea3i tr\u1ea3 cho s\u1ef1 l\u1eabn l\u1ed9n n\u00e0y trong cu\u1ed9c s\u1ed1ng.

Th\u1ee9 t\u01b0, trong gi\u1edbi h\u1ea1n c\u1ee7a logic h\u1ecdc, kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00e0 ti\u1ec1n \u0111\u1ec1 b\u1eaft bu\u1ed9c \u0111\u1ec3 ki\u1ebfn t\u1ea1o n\u00ean c\u00e1c ph\u00e1n \u0111o\u00e1n v\u00e0 suy lu\u1eadn. V\u00ec v\u1eady, t\u00ednh ch\u00e2n - gi\u1ea3 c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c ph\u00e1n \u0111o\u00e1n v\u00e0 suy lu\u1eadn tr\u01b0\u1edbc h\u1ebft tu\u1ef3 thu\u1ed9c t\u00ednh ch\u00e2n - gi\u1ea3 c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m. Kh\u00f4ng \u00edt c\u00e1c l\u1ed7i logic c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c ph\u00e1n \u0111o\u00e1n v\u00e0 c\u00e1c suy lu\u1eadn \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c v\u1ea1ch ra ngay t\u1eeb c\u00e1c l\u1ed7i logic c\u1ee7a kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m. Quan h\u1ec7 logic gi\u1eefa b\u1ed9 ba (kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m - ph\u00e1n \u0111o\u00e1n - suy lu\u1eadn) nh\u01b0 v\u1eady c\u00e0ng c\u00f3 \u00fd ngh\u0129a g\u1ea5p b\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed1 i v\u1edbi c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn. B\u1edfi nh\u01b0 tr\u00ean v\u1eeba n\u00f3i, c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn, nh\u1ea5t l\u00e0 c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m n\u1ec1n t\u1ea3ng, c\u00f3 vai tr\u00f2 \u0111\u1ecbnh h\u01b0\u1edbng l\u1edbn lao v\u00e0 chi ph\u1ed1i t\u1eeb \u0111\u1ea7u s\u1ef1 th\u00e0nh b\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a c\u1ea3 m\u1ed9t ch\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh, th\u1eadm ch\u00ed c\u1ea3 m\u1ed9t m\u00f4 h\u00ecnh ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i.

Th\u1ee9 n\u0103m, thu\u1ed9c ph\u1ea1m tr\u00f9 \u00fd th\u1ee9c \u0111\u1eddi th\u01b0\u1eddng - t\u00e2m l\u00fd x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i, c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m kinh nghi\u1ec7m th\u01b0\u1eddng
k\u00e9m t\u00ednh h\u1ec7 ch\u00f4ng. Tr\u00e1i l\u1ea1i t\u00ednh h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t \u0111\u1eb7c tr\u01b0ng r\u00f5 n\u00e9t \u1edf c\u00e1c kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn, v\u00f4 lu\u1eadn
l\u00e0 \u1edf d\u1ea1ng ch\u00e2n ch\u00ednh - khoa h\u1ecdc hay \u1edf d\u1ea1ng gi\u1ea3 t\u1ea1o - ph\u1ea3n khoa h\u1ecdc. T\u00ednh h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t kh\u00e1i
ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn hay c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t l\u00fd lu\u1eadn ph\u1ea3n \u00e1nh - ho\u1eb7c trung th\u1ef1c ho\u1eb7c xuy\u00ean t\u1ea1c t\u00ednh h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng v\u1ed1n c\u00f3
\u1edb b\u1ea3n th\u00e2n \u0111\u1ed1i t\u01b0\u1ee3ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u1ea3n \u00e1nh, qua \u0111\u00f3 m\u00e0 ph\u1ea3n \u00e1nh trung th\u1ef1c ho\u1eb7c xuy\u00ean t\u1ea1c c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac n\u1ed9i
t\u1ea1i c\u00f9ng v\u1edbi b\u1ea3n ch\u1ea5t th\u1eadt c\u1ee7a \u0111\u1ed1i t\u01b0\u1ee3ng. X\u00e9t \u0111\u1ebfn c\u00f9ng, ch\u1ee9c n\u0103ng nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c t\u1ed5ng h\u1ee3p c\u1ee7a c\u1eb7p
ph\u1ea1m tr\u00f9 logic ngo\u1ea1i di\u1ec5n v\u00e0 n\u1ed1i h\u00e0m c\u1ee7a kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m kh\u00f4ng g\u00ec kh\u00e1c h\u01a1n l\u00e0 ph\u1ed1i h\u1ee3p ph\u1ea3n \u00e1nh cho
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c b\u1ea3n ch\u1ea5t c\u00f3 th\u1eadt c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t \u0111\u1ed1i t\u01b0\u1ee3ng x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh, t\u01b0\u01a1ng \u1ee9ng v\u1edbi m\u1ed9t h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng - c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac x\u00e1c
\u0111\u1ecbnh. C\u00e1i kh\u00f3 v\u00e0 ph\u1ee9c t\u1ea1p c\u1ee7a t\u01b0 duy tr\u1eebu t\u01b0\u1ee3ng - l\u00fd lu\u1eadn l\u00e0 \u1edf \u0111\u00f3, c\u00e1i \u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t h\u1ea5p d\u1eabn c\u1ee7a t\u01b0 duy
tr\u1eebu t\u01b0\u1ee3ng - l\u00fd lu\u1eadn c\u0169ng l\u00e0 \u1edf \u0111\u00f3. Th\u00e1ch th\u1ee9c th\u1ef1c s\u1ef1 \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi y\u00eau c\u1ea7u ti\u1ebfp c\u1eadn v\u00e0 "ti\u00eau ho\u00e1" m\u1ed9t
kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m l\u00fd lu\u1eadn v\u00e0 c\u1ea3 m\u1ed9t h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng l\u00fd lu\u1eadn \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi c\u1ea3 ng\u01b0\u1eddi nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u, ng\u01b0\u1eddi d\u1ea1y v\u00e0 ng\u01b0\u1eddi
h\u1ecdc x\u01b0a nay n\u00f3i chung c\u0169ng ch\u00ednh l\u00e0 ch\u1ed7 \u0111\u00f3. \u0110\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t, v\u1edbi h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m - ph\u1ea1m tr\u00f9 tri\u1ebft
h\u1ecdc M\u00e1c - L\u00eanin mang t\u1ea7m ph\u1ea3n \u00e1nh ph\u1ed5 qu\u00e1t nh\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a t\u1ef1 nhi\u00ean, x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i v\u00e0 t\u01b0 duy, th\u00ec quan \u0111i\u1ec3m
to\u00e0n di\u1ec7n c\u00f9ng v\u1edbi c\u00e1ch ti\u1ebfp c\u1eadn h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng bao gi\u1edd c\u0169ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c coi l\u00e0 nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p lu\u1eadn
h\u00e0ng \u0111\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a ph\u00e9p bi\u1ec7n ch\u1ee9ng duy v\u1eadt.

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