There was a problem sending you an sms. Check your phone number or try again later.
We've sent a link to the Scribd app. If you didn't receive it, try again.
environmental impacts of integrating a photovoltaic (PV) array into diesel-electric power systems for remote villages. MATLAB Simulink is used to match the load with the demand and appor- tion the electrical production between the PV and diesel-electric generator. The economic part of the model calculates the fuel consumed, the kilowatthours obtained per gallon of fuel supplied, and the total cost of fuel. The environmental part of the model calculates the
emitted to the atmosphere. Simulations based on an actual system in the remote Alaskan community of Lime Village were performed for three cases: 1) diesel only; 2) diesel-battery; and 3) PV with diesel-battery using a one-year time period. The simulation results were utilized to calculate the energy payback, the simple payback time for the PV module, and the avoided costs of
and PM. Post-simulation analysis includes the comparison of results with those predicted by Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER). The life-cycle cost (LCC) and air emissions results of our Simulink model were comparable to those predicted by HOMER.
remote locations is a driving force for research in hybrid energy systems. Power utilities in many countries around the world are diverting their attention toward more energy- ef\ufb01cient and renewable electric power sources. Reasons for this interest include the possibilities of \u201ctaxes\u201d or other penalties for emis- sions of greenhouse gases as well as other pollutants plus the \ufb01- nite supply of fossil fuels. The use of renewable energy sources in remote locations could help reduce the operating cost through the reduction in fuel consumption, increase system ef\ufb01ciency, and reduce noise and emissions , . In some remote villages, including Lime Village, Alaska, stand-alone hybrid power sys- tems are often more cost effective than utility grid extensions, mainly due to the high cost of transmission lines.
Manuscript received March 26, 2004; revised August 20, 2004. This work was supported by the Arctic Energy Technology and Development Laboratory (AETDL) under Grant G00000406 with the United States Department of En- ergy. Paper no. TPWRS-00167-2004.
The authors are with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Depart- ment, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99775-5915 USA (e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org).
Based on energy consumption studies compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy, Alaska spends $28.71 per million BTU for electrical energy versus $19.37 per million BTU for the rest of the United States . It is very expensive to transport fuel for diesel electric generators (DEGs) in some villages of Alaska  due to the remoteness of the site. Furthermore, there are is- sues associated with oil spills and storage of fuels . There- fore, photovoltaic (PV), wind, and other renewable sources of energy are being integrated with DEGs to help reduce the fuel consumed by the DEGs.
This paper presents a model based on an existing hybrid elec- tric power system for a remote location in the Alaskan commu- nity of Lime Village. The input data to the model are acquired using a remote terminal unit (RTU) that must \ufb01rst be installed at the site. The RTU allows for remote data collection and system control while also providing information necessary for mod- eling the hybrid power system. The information from the RTU can be processed using the model described in this paper. In this way, the RTU and the model can be used to optimize the perfor- mance of the hybrid power system.
MATLAB Simulink is used to model the system and apportion the electrical production between the PV array and diesel-electric generator. In general, the Simulink model can be used to study the performance of any hybrid power system. Using Simulink, other renewable energy sources, dynamic operation, and control system strategies can be easily incorporated into the existing hy- brid power system model to study the overall performance of the system. Simulations are performed for three cases: 1) diesel only; 2) diesel-battery; and 3) PV with diesel-battery using a one-year time period. The results of the simulations are used to perform an economic analysis and predict the environmental impacts of integrating a PV array into diesel-electric power systems for re- mote villages. The economic part of the model calculates the fuel consumed, the kilowatthours obtained per gallon of fuel supplied, and the total cost of fuel. The environmental part of the model cal- culates the CO,particulatematter(PM),andtheNO emittedto the atmosphere. These results are then utilized to calculate the en- ergy payback, the simple payback time for the PV module, and the avoided costs of CO, NO , and PM.
supply the desired load, the system becomes a hybrid electric power system. A simple block diagram of a hybrid power system is shown in Fig. 1. The sources of electric power in this hy- brid system consist of a diesel generator, a battery bank, a PV array, and a wind generator. The diesel generator is the main source of power for many of the remote villages in Alaska  and around the world. The output of the diesel generator is reg- ulated ac voltage, which supplies the load directly through the main distribution transformer.
The battery bank, the PV array, and the wind turbine are in- terlinked through a dc bus. The RTU regulates the\ufb02ow of power to and from the different units, depending on the load. The in- tegration of a RTU into a hybrid power system is important to enhance the performance of the system . The overall purpose of the RTU is to give knowledgeable personnel the ability to monitor and control the hybrid system from an external control center. Since the hybrid systems of interest in this research are located in remote areas, the ability for external monitoring and control is of utmost importance. The RTU is interfaced with a variety of sensors and control devices located at key locations within the hybrid system. The RTU processes the data from these sensors and transmits it to a control center. In addition, the RTU is also capable of receiving control signals and adjusting parameters within the system without the physical presence of the operating personnel.
This paper investigates the integration of a PV array with a diesel-battery hybrid electric power system located in Lime Vil- lage, Alaska. The hybrid power system of Lime Village consists of 21- and 35-kW diesel generators, 100 kWh (95 two-volt cells) of valve-regulated lead acid batteries, and a 12-kW PV array. The PV array consists of 8 kW of BP275 solar panels and 4 kW of Siemens M55 solar panels. Wind generation is not a vi- able renewable energy source for Lime Village due to the low wind speeds in this area. A 30-kVA bidirectional power con- verter/controller is used to supply power to and from the bat-
teries and from the PV array. Figures from the Alaska Energy Authority (AEA) show that the operating cost of fuel supplied for the generators of Lime Village ranges from $2.80 per gallon in summer to $4.80 per gallon in winter . Due to the high cost of fuel, it is desired that the diesel generators operate ef\ufb01ciently and economically. The use of renewable energy in the form of a PV array combined with regulated battery storage helps in con- straining the use of the diesel generator while optimizing the ef\ufb01ciency and economics of the system. Efforts are already un- derway to install an RTU at Lime Village, further enhancing the performance of the system.
A model of a hybrid power system of Lime Village was designed using MATLAB Simulink. The Simulink model was developed so that it can be used to study the performance of any hybrid power system. Using the-function in Simulink, blocks representing other renewable energy sources can be easily incorporated into the existing hybrid power system model. Simulink also allows the dynamic operation and the control system strategy to be incorporated into the hybrid power system model to study the dynamic performance of the system. The overall block diagram of the current system is shown in Fig. 2. The model consists of nine different subsystems contained in blocks. TheInput Parameters block includes data\ufb01les obtained from the site. After the installation of the RTU, the model will acquire the data directly from the RTU. This data can be used by engineers and operators to evaluate and optimize the performance of the system.
Sensors on the system are used to gather information, such as the amount of sunlight incident upon the PV arrays, charge level of the batteries, and important operating parameters of the diesel generator. The voltage or current signals from these sen- sors are transmitted to signal conditioning devices that convert the signals to an instrumentation level. These signals are then passed to analog input modules of the RTU and digitized for processing. The processing consists of scaling the inputs and
converting them to a meaningful unit. The data is then saved within the memory of the RTU and unloaded to a database on a central server at a location outside of the village at a user-speci-
nections and are usually accomplished through dial-up/ethernet connections with the RTU. At this point, the data are placed in a database and accessed via a web page or other methods and are available as input to the model .
The input data\ufb01les to the model are the system electrical load, solar insolation values, ambient temperature, and the kilowatt ratings of the different energy components. The Simulink model developed here uses data from the manufacturer to calculate the ef\ufb01ciency and the amount of fuel used for the DEG. Knowing the above parameters, the Simulink model can be used to study the performance of any hybrid power system.
After being processed by theInput Parametersblock of the model, this information is used by all of the other subsystems to calculate ef\ufb01ciency, fuel consumption, and total cost of fuel.
ThePV Model block is the model of the 12-kW PV array installed at Lime Village. This block calculates the power avail- able from the PV array, depending on the intensity of sunlight. The-function written in MATLAB performs the following tasks.
The total power available from the PV array (aligned due south and tilted at a 15 angle) is calculated using the solar insolation values, the total area of the col- lector, and the ef\ufb01ciency of the solar collector. The solar insolation values were obtained as the input of thePV Model from the output of theInput Parame-
solar map developed by the National Renewable En- ergy Laboratory (NREL). This map utilizes extrapo- lations of 30-yr data from measurements at other lo- cations combined with satellite data on cloud cover . The total collector area for the PV array was ob- tained fromthe manufacturer data sheet. The ef\ufb01ciency of commercially available solar collector is about 15% . In this project, a collector ef\ufb01ciency of 12% is as- sumed.
The model compares the calculated PV power to the required load. If the PVpower is more than the load on the system, the model checks the battery kilowatthours. If the battery kilowatthours is less than 95% of its rated kilowatthours, the model will send the excess available power to charge the battery bank. On the other hand, if the kilowatthours rating of the battery is more than 95% of its rated kilowatthours, the model will send the excess power to the dump load. The dump load consists of resistive banks that can adsorb excess power available fromthe PVarray, which can subsequently be used to provide space heating. Lime Village does not currently have dump load. If the PV power is less than the load on the system, all of the power available from the PV array will go to the load. The battery bank will supply the remaining load. If the battery bank is unable to supply the rest of the load, the load is passed to the diesel generator. The diesel generator then supplies the load and charges the battery bank simultaneously.
The hybrid power system is designed in such a way that the PV array has the highest priority to supply the load. If the load is not met by the PV power, the battery bank is used to supply the required load. If the battery bank is less than 20% charged, the controller sends the signal to start up the diesel generator. The diesel generator is then used to supply the desired load and charge the battery bank simultaneously. On the other hand, if there is excess power available from the PV array, the excess power is used to charge the battery bank. If the battery bank is 95% charged, the excess power is sent to a resistive dump load, which can be used for space-heating purposes. In the Simulink model, the roundtrip ef\ufb01ciency of the recti\ufb01er/inverter and the internal loss in the battery bank per cycle was considered as 90%.
TheBattery Model block consists of the battery bank and controller. TheBattery Model has the second highest priority to supply the load. Once the RTU is installed at Lime Village, it will regulate the power output of the diesel generator, the PV array, and the battery bank through digital/analog output capa- bilities that enable equipment to be switched\u201con\u201d and\u201coff.\u201d The control settings and set point con\ufb01gurations are programmed
Now bringing you back...
Does that email address look wrong? Try again with a different email.