\u25cfCO2-capnometry - the most effective non-
\u25cfECG 12 derivations
\u25cfCapillary refill time
Arterial line or pulmonary artery catheter. Provides continuous measurement, high accuracy, can take samples used in determining gasometry.
Pressure measured is approximately equal to that
of the left atrium (excellent indicator for adequate
volemic resuscitation), Cardiac Output, Central
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